Kalanchoe pinnata

scientific name: 
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.
synonym: 
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Perennial, fleshy, glabrous, herb up to 1.5 m high. Leaves opposite, lower simple the upper pinnate, blades 18 cm x 12 cm, leaflets elliptic, margins crenate producing at times small plantlets in the small notches; inflorescence a panicle 10-40 cm; flowers pendulous, calyx inflated light green turning yellow 2.5-3.5 cm, corolla dull brownish-red 2.5-4.5cm long; fruit a follicle 10-15 mm long.

Voucher(s)

Girón,166,CFEH
Ochoa,274,HPMHV
Rouzier,42,SOE
Jiménez,11,JBSD
Pinzón,21893,CUVC

headhache:

  crushed leaf, applied on forehead1-4

cough:

  leaf, decoction, orally6

colds:

  leaf, juice, orally5

vomiting:

  leaf, worn as an amulet around the neck7

For topical use for headache and oral use for cold and cough:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

The use as an amulet against vomiting is a traditional cultural use and is not classified in the TRAMIL program.

According to published and other information:

Use for cough is categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for headache and cold are categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, validation, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the cold last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or in children.

TRAMIL Research33

The lyophilized aqueous extract, at a concentration of 312.5 mg/mL, obtained from the decoction of the leaf, was orally administered, in a volume of 0.5 mL/day during 5 days, to 10 mice of strain Hsd:ICR(CD-1) (5 males and 5 females), according to the OECD 423 protocol, as modified by LEBi. The vehicle control was distilled and de-ionized water (0.4 mL) administered to another group of 10 mice of similar characteristics. They were observed for 12 days.  There was no mortality, and no toxicity signs were noted during the experiment or during subsequent observation. The rest of the assessment parameters were not modified. 

TRAMIL Research34

The pure fresh juice, obtained by crushing the leaf, was orally administered (5 g/kg/day/5 days) to 10 mice Hsd:ICR(CD-1), (5 males and 5 females), according to the OECD 423 protocol, as modified by LEBi. The vehicle control was distilled and de-ionized water (0.4 mL) administered to another group of 10 mice of similar characteristics. They were observed for 12 days.  There was no mortality, and no toxicity signs were noted during the experiment or during subsequent observation. The rest of the assessment parameters were not modified. 

TRAMIL Research35

The juice of the fresh, crushed leaf was topically applied (1 mL/day/5 days) on the back of 3 New Zealand rabbits, on an area of 10 x 5 cm of skin injured with scalpel cuts, according to the USP 27 NF22, OECD 404 protocol, as modified by LEBi. The control was observed in the same animals by applying distilled and de-ionized water to a similar area on the other side of the back. (En este caso parece ser el mismo grupo de animales que se usó para el control.  Sugiero cambiar la corrección: “The control vehicle was distilled and de-ionized water, applied on the other side of the back of the same animals”).  They were under observation for 12 days.  No abnormal symptoms were observed, nor were erythema or edema noted during the experiment or on subsequent observation.

The entire plant administered orally to rat (790 mg/kg) did not reveal any toxic effect36.

The hydroalcoholic extract (50%) from the entire plant by intraperitoneal administration to mouse gave an LD50 = 1 mg/kg37.

The methanolic extract from the dried leaf (2400 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal administration to male mouse did not induce any general toxic effect38.

The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts (95%) from the stem and fresh leaf by intraperitoneal administration to mouse showed evidence of a minimum toxic dosage of 1 mL/animal23.

The death of two adult bovines occurred 48 hours after ingestion of a considerable amount of plant.  Clinical signs of poisoning were hypersalivation, ataxia, severe cardiac arrythmia and difficulty to breathe. Necropsies revealed rumenitis (inflammation of the rumen or main stomach), reduction of bronchial clearance, and emphysema39.  The death of two calves occurred after administration of the flower (20 g/kg) orally40.

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

TRAMIL Research8

Preliminary phytochemical screening (leaf):

alkaloids:

-

saponins:

-

 

flavonoids:

+

phenolic comp.:

+

 

quinones:

-

tannins:

-

 

steroids, terpenoids:

-

 

 

               

The aerial parts contain flavonoids: astragalin, quercetin derivatives9, kaempferol10; benzenoids: syringic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, r-coumaric and ferulic acids10; bufadienolides: bersaldegenin 3-acetate, bryophyllin C, bryotoxin B11, 1,3,5,14-tetrahydroxy-19-oxobufa-20,22-dienolide12; steroids: b-sitosterol, campesterol, among others13; triterpenes: a-amyrin14, b-amyrin, bryophollenone, bryophollone, bryophynol15; organic acids: acetic, citric, malic, oxalic and succinic acids16; alkanes14

The methanolic extract from the dried leaf, administered intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg) to male mice, caused analgesic effects in the acetic acid-induced contraction model (but not in tail flick models), in addition to depression of the central nervous system, and an increase in sleeping time; at doses of 300 mg/kg, it increased the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) levels and caused relaxation of skeletal muscle17.

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the fresh leaf inhibited in vitro immunomodulating activity in the experimental lymphocyte proliferation model; the incubation of cells in the extract blocked the proliferating response to interleukin-2, which lasted throughout the culture period, even in the absence of the extract, with dose-dependent response18.

The leaf juice (5%) was reported effective effect against gram + and gram – bacteria, such as: Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; S. faecalis; Escherichia coli; Proteus spp; Klebsiella spp; Shigella spp; Salmonella spp; Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including clinical strains with multiple resistance to antibiotics19.

The aqueous extract from the fresh leaf showed antifungal activity in vitro against Ustilago maydis and U. nuda20.

The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts (95%) in vitro (10 mg/mL) were inactive against Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Diplococcus pneumoniae, and featured weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and S. viridans21.

The aqueous extract from the dried leaf, administered orally (1.6 g/kg) in the carrageenan-induced pedal edema model, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity22.

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the fresh leaf (0.33 mL/L) were reported to have spasmogenetic properties on guinea pig ileum23.

An aqueous extract, administered orally, was reported to possess no antitussive activity in guinea pigs24.

In a series of 50 patients with trophic ulcers on the leg, 46 were healed by the local application of the leaf juice25.

The plant is claimed to have healing and antiseptic properties.  Tolerance to topical application is very good. Its effects are more favorable than Aloe spp26.

Bryophyllin, contained in the aqueous extract from the leaf, is claimed to be active as cytotoxic27, antiseptic, bactericidal and against intestinal disorders associated with pathogenic bacteria28-29; coumaric acid is claimed to be active as bactericidal, choleretic, and as inhibitor of prostaglandin and lipoxygenase synthesis; ferulic acid is claimed to be have analgesic, plaque anti-aggregation, anti-dysmenorrheic and antispasmodic properties30-31. Potassium salts induce diuretic activity32.

References:  

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 PINZON M, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Isla de San Andrés). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

9 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1971
Flavonoid glycosides from Kalanchoe pinnata. Planta Med 20(4):368-373.

10 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1973
Phenolic components from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata. Planta Med 23(12):149-153.

11 YAMAGISHI T, YAN X, WU R, MC PHAIL D, MC PHAIL A, LEE K, 1988
Structure and stereochemistry of bryophyllin-A, a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Chem Pharm Bull 36(4):1615-1617.

12 YAN,XZ: LEE,KS: YAMAGISHI,T, 1992
Isolation and identification of cytotoxic components from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Shanghai Yike Daxue Xuebao 19(3):206-208.

13 AKIHISA T, KOKKE W, TAMURA T, MATSUMOTO T, 1991
Sterols of Kalanchoe pinnata: first report of the isolation of both C-24 epimers of 24-alkyl-delta-25-sterols from a higher plant. Lipids 26(8):660-665.

14 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1972
Alkanes, alkanols, triterpenes and sterols from Kalanchoe pinnata. Phytochemistry 11(4):1500-1502.

15 SIDDIQUI S, FAIZI S, SIDDIQUI B, SULTANA N, 1989
Triterpenoids and phenanthrenes from leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Phytochemistry 28(9):2433-2438.

16 BULEN WA, VARNER JE, BURRELL RC, 1952
Separation of organic acids from plant tissues. Anal Chem 24:187-190.

17 PAL S, SEN T, CHAUDHURI AK, 1999
Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(3):313-318.

18 MORAES V, COSTA S, BERGMANN R, 1992
Immunomodulatory activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. Dept. of Biochemistry, ICB, URFJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

19 OBASEIKI-EBOR EE, 1985
Preliminary report on the in vitro antibacterial activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf juice. Afr J Med Sci 14(3-4):199-202.

20 SINGH K, PATHAK R, 1984
Effect of leaves extracts of some higher plants on spore germination of Ustilago maydes and U. nuda. Fitoterapia 55(5):318-320.

21 NAOVI S, KHAN M, VOHORA S, 1991
Antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic investigation on Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 62(3):21-228.

22 HEMA D, TIDJANI M, BASSENE E, POUSSET JL, GIONO-BARBER H, 1986
African medicinal plants. XXIV. Study of the antiinflammatory activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Plant Med Phytother 20(3):231-235.

23 FENG P, HAYNES L, MAGNUS K, PLIMMER J, SHERRAT H, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

24 ANDRONOVA L, 1972
Antitussive properties of certain medical plants. Rast Resur 8:588-591.

25 BERSHTEJN E, 1972
Utilisation du jus de Kalanchoe pinnata dans le traitement des ulcères trophiques de la jambe. Vest Khir URSS 108(3):116-118.

26SVANIDZE N, LANOVENKLY V, SÁNCHEZ A, RODRÍGUEZ P, 1975
Kalanchoe pinnata como planta medicinal en Cuba. Rev Cub Farm 9(3):225-228.

27 YAMAGISHI T, HARUNA M, YAN XZ, CHANG JJ, LEE KH, 1989
Antitumor agents. 110. Bryophylline B., a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide from Bryophyllum pinnatum. J Nat Prod 52(5):1071-1079.

28 BOAKYE-YIADOM K, 1977
Antimicrobial properties of some West African medicinal plants. 1. Antimicrobial action of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Quart J Crude Res 15:201-202.

29 PERRY LM, METZGER J, 1980
Medicinal plants of East and Southeast Asia: attributed properties and uses. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.

30 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

31 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS Herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

32 OLIVER B, 1960
Medicinal plants in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratones, de la hoja de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso del zumo de la hoja de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca machacada de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL.Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 YOKEL R, OGZEWALLA CD, 1981
Effects of plant ingestion in rats determined by the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Toxicon 19(2):223-232.

37 BHAKUNI O, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

38 PAL S, SEN T, CHAUDHURI AKN,1999
Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(3):313-318.

39 REPPAS GP, 1995
Bryophyllum pinnatum poisoning of cattle. Aust Vet J 72(11):425-427.

40 MCKENZIE RA, FRANKE FP, DUNSTER PJ, 1987
The toxicity to cattle and bufadienolide content of six Bryophyllum species. Aust Vet J 64(10):298-301.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.