Mangifera indica

scientific name: 
Mangifera indica L.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Tree evergreen, 10-15 m high with a dense, rounded crown of foliage, bark resinous.  Leaves alternate, simple, spirally arranged, lanceolate-elliptical, 10-25 cm x 2.5-8 cm; inflorescence a terminal panicle ca 30 cm long; flowers 5-8 mm in diameter, greenish or yellowish, fragrant; fruit a fleshy drupe, ellipsoid to obliquely reniform, 5-15 cm long.

Voucher(s)

Girón,188,CFEH

Girón,810,CFEH

Graveson,1586,SLNH

The fruit ofMangifera indica is widely used for human consumption.

For cough and pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 leaves in 1 liter of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For bronchitis, indigestion (burn) and weakness:

Prepare an infusion, adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 leaves.  Cover and allow cool down for 5-10 minutes, and then filter.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

According to published and other information:

Use for indigestion (burn) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of the flower for bronchitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of the flower for weakness, pneumonia and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should bronchitis, pneumopathy or cough last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

TRAMIL Research28

There were no acute toxic effects from the flower and dried leaf hydroalcoholic extracts (70%), administered orally to 5 male mice, at a maximum dosage of 5 g/kg; the vehicle control was saline solution administered to a control group of 5 animals.  Parameters were analyzed 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after treatment.  The data reported on a daily basis for 14 days following single ingestion did not show significant differences compared to control specimens in terms of mortality, behavior, daily weight and weight of vital organs (liver, heart, kidney and lungs).

TRAMIL Research41

The decoction from the leaf (1:1), following the methodology proposed by Turner, was found to have an oral LD1 above 25 g/kg of weight, and an intraperitoneal LD50 of 2.32 ± 0.35 g/kg.

In subchronic toxicity tests, the maximum dose of 25 g/kg/day, orally administered, did not cause death within 28 days of administration, and no histopathologic changes attributable to the administration of the extract were observed 60 days after treatment.

TRAMIL Research42

The lyophilized aqueous extract obtained from the decoction of the fresh flower was orally administered (5 g/kg) once a day for 5 consecutive days to 10 NGP mice (5 males and 5 females).  The control vehicle was distilled water (0.5 mL), administered to another group of 10 mice of the same strain and characteristics.  They were under observation for 7 additional days following the end of treatment and control.  During the test, no mortality and no toxicity signs were observed in the evaluated parameters.

The leaf, stem and bark contain certain toxic constituents that can cause irritation of the gastric and renal mucosae43.

The hydroalcoholic extract (1:1) from the dried aerial parts administered intraperitoneally to mouse gave an LD50 above 1 g/kg40.

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

The leaf has been extensively studied and contains, among other components: sesquiterpenes: allo-aromadendrene4; flavonoids: epi-(-)-catechin 3-O-gallate5, kaempferol, quercetin6, rutin7; essential oil4,8; xanthones: euxanthone6, mangiferine5,9-10, homo-mangiferine9,iso-mangiferine5,9; triterpenes11; benzenoids9,12; tannins5; steroids: b-sitosterol11.

The blossom contains benzenoids: methyl-6-(O-trimethyl-galloyl)-2,4-dimethoxy-benzoate; flavonoids: 5-hydroxy-3,3',4',7-tetramethoxy-flavone, methoxykaempferol, methoxymyricetin, methoxyquercetin, methoxyquercitrin; triterpenes: lupenone, lupeol, ursolic acid; xanthones: pentamethoxy and tetramethoxy-xanthone13.

The flower contains benzenoids: gallic acid derivatives14-15.

The seed, the stem bark, the root and the fruit have been extensively studied16-23.

Proximate analysis of 100 g of fresh leaf24: calories: 66; water: 81.7%; proteins: 0.7%; fat: 0.4%; carbohydrates: 16.8%; fiber: 0.9%; ash: 0.4%; calcium: 10 mg; phosphorus: 13 mg; iron: 0.4 mg; sodium: 7 mg; potassium: 189 mg; carotene: 2880 µg; thiamine: 0.05 mg; riboflavin: 0.05 mg; niacin: 1.1 mg; ascorbic acid: 35 mg.

TRAMIL Research25

The lyophilized infusion of the fresh leaf was orally administered in a single dose (5 g/kg) to NGP mice (5 males and 5 females).  The control was a second group of 10 mice of the same strain and characteristics, treated with distilled water (0.5 mL). The extract increases intestinal motility, with a substantial difference observed.  Average distance covered by a labelled food component in intestine of the control group = 54.88%, and in the treated group = 65.34%.

TRAMIL Research26

A ten-minute decoction of the dried flower in vitro at 2 mg/mL on an agar plate inhibited the growth of Candida albicans ATCC10231 (minimum inhibitory concentration /MIC = 0.5 mg/mL); but it did not inhibit the growth of any of the other microorganisms screened: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853,Salmonella typhi ATCC14028 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6558 or Cryptococcus neoformans C13.

TRAMIL Research27

The lyophilized aqueous extract obtained from the decoction of the fresh flower was added to a preparation containing guinea pig trachea rings in a nutritive medium.  The test tubes were kept at a temperature of 36 ºC, initial tension was 2 g and the preparation was kept oxygenated with carbogen mix (95% O2 and 5% CO2).  Before administering the extract, the ring contracted with the addition of 80 mmoles of KCl.  Under these conditions, the extract does not have a bronchodilating effect.

TRAMIL Research28

The hydroalcoholic extracts (70%) from the flower and dried leaf were orally administered (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) in several induced gastric injury models.  The flower extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg) significantly decreased the injuries caused by acidified ethanol (ethanol 60% at 0.3 moles/L de HCl), the stress from immobilization and cold in mice, and the injuries caused by absolute ethanol in rat.  The leaf extract (1 g/kg) significantly inhibited acidified ethanol-induced injuries in mice.

The decoction or maceration of 30 g of bark or leaf in 1 L of water was antidiarrheal. The decoction of 30 g of leaf in 1 L of water was diuretic29.

The methanol extract from the leaf administered subcutaneously at an unstated dosage was estrogenically active in female mice30.

The undiluted juice of the raw leaf was inactive as an antiviral against bean common mosaic virus31.

The ethanolic extract (60%) from the leaf at an unstated concentration was inactive as an antimicrobial against Candida albicans32.

The undiluted ethanolic extract (95%) from the dried leaf was active against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus33; the aqueous extract was active against Actinomycete spp, Bacteroides gingivalis, Pseudomonas accharophila, Streptococcus salivarius, S. viridans34.  The undiluted decoction was inactive against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus33.

The aqueous extract from the dried leaf at variable concentrations was nematicidal against Meloidogyne incognita35.  When orally administered (10 mg/kg), it did not induce hypoglycemia in rabbit36.

The undiluted decoction of the dried leaf was active against Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus, and inactive against Aspergillus niger, Mycobacterium phlei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae37.

The lyophilized ethanolic extract (80%) from the frozen leaf at variable concentrations did not exhibit any clear antiviral activity against coxsackie B2, measles, poliovirus I, adenovirus, herpes type 1 or semlicki-forest virus38.

The aqueous extract from the dried leaf was weakly active as a molluscicidal against Biomphalaria pfeifferi39.

The hydroalcoholic extract (1:1) from the aerial parts was active as a uterine stimulant in rat. It was inactive as an antitumoral agent against LEUK-P388; at 25 µg/mL by intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/kg), no cytotoxicity against CA-9KB was reported40.

References:  

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 CRAVEIRO AA, ANDRADE CH, MATOS FJ, ALENCAR JW, MACHADO MI, 1980 Volatile constituents of Mangifera indica Linn. Rev Latinoamer Quim 11:129.

5 TANAKA T, SUEYASU T, NONAKA G-I, NISHIOKA I, 1984 Tannins and related compounds. XXI. Isolation and characterization of galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoyl esters of benzophenone and xanthone c-glucosides from Mangifera indica L. Chem Pharm Bull 32(7):2676-2686.

6 PROCTOR JTA, CREASY LL, 1969 The anthocyanin of the mango fruit. Phytochemistry 8:2108.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 NIGAM IC, 1962 Studies in some Indian essential oils. Agra Univ J Res Sci 11:147-152.

9 LU ZY, MAO HD, HE MR, LU SY, 1982 Studies on the chemical constituents of mangguo (Mangifera indica) leaf. Chung Ts'ao Yao 13:3-6.

10 PHARM XS, PHARM GK, 1991 The extraction and determination of the flavonoid mangiferin in the bark and leaves of Mangifera indica. Tap Chi Duoc Hoc 5:8-19.

11 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, 1982 Triterpenoids of the leaves of Mangifera indica. Indian J Pharm Sci 44:58-59.

12 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

13 GHOSAL S, BISWAS K, CHATTOPADHYAY BK, 1978 Differences in the chemical constituents of Mangifera indica infected with Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliformae. Phytochemistry 17:689-694.

14 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1989 Alkyl gallates of flowers of Mangifera indica. Fitoterapia 60(3):284.

15 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1993 Studies in the chemical constituents of flowers of Mangifera indica. Part-II. Isolation and characterization of some alkylgallates from blossoms of Mangifera indica. Pak J Sci Ind 35(7/8):276-278.

16 BANDYOPADHYAY C, 1983 Contribution of gas chromatography to food flavor research. Pafai J 5(3):26-30.

17 SAEED AR, KARAMALLA KA, KHATTAB AH, 1976 Polyphenolic compounds in the pulp of Mangifera indica L. J Food Sci 41(4):959-960.

18 MAC LEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of mango fruit. Phytochemistry 21:2523-2526.

19 GAYDOU EM, BOUCHET P, 1984 Sterols, methyl sterols, triterpene alcohols and fatty acids of the kernel fat of different Malagasy mango (Mangifera indica) varieties. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 61(10):1589-1593.

20 ANJANEYULU V, RAVI K, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, CONNOLLY JD, 1989 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 28(5):1471-1477.

21 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA K, RAVI PK, CONNOLLY JD, 1985 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 24(10):2359-2367.

22 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, INDIAN J, 1982 Triterpenoids of the root-bark of Mangifera indica. Pharm Sci 44(4):85-87.

23 KHAN MA, NIZAMI SS, KHAN MNI, AZEEM SW, AHMED Z, 1994 New triterpenes from Mangifera indica. J Nat Prod 57(7):988-991.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p105.

25 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

27GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 SOUZA BRITO ARM, HIRUMA-LIMA CA, LIMA ZP, 2003 Atividades biológicas obtidas dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas e flores da Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL, Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP y Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil.

29 POUSSET J, 1989 Plantes médicinales africaines. Utilisation pratique. Paris, France: ACCT.

30 RAY BN, PAL AK, 1967 Estrogenic activity of tree leaves as animal feed. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 20:6.

31 TRIPATHI RKR, TRIPATHI RN, 1982 Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia 38(3):349-349.

32 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

33 GEORGE M, PANDALAI KM, 1949 Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

34 PATEL VK, VENKATAKRISHNA-BHATT H, 1988 Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26(4):176-184.

35 VIJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA SD, PRASAD SK, 1979 Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 JAIN SR, SHARMA SN, 1967 Hypoglycaemic drugs of Indian indigenous origin. Planta Med 15(4):439-442.

37 MALCOLM SA, SOFOWORA EA, 1969 Antimicrobial activity of selected Nigerian folk remedies and their constituent plants. Lloydia 32:512-517.

38 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41: 463-467.

39 KLOOS H, THIONGO FW, OUMA JH, BUTTERWORTH AE, 1987 Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos district, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 90(4):197-204.

40 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

41 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

42 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986 Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.

44 GUPTA MP, ARIAS TD, CORREA M, LAMBA SS, 1979 Ethnopharmacognostic observations on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Q J Crude Drug Res 17(3/4):115-130.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.