ocular affections

Abelmoschus esculentus


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominica: okra , gumbo
 Dominican Republic: molondrón
 Haiti: calalou
 Martinique: gonbo , kalalou

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit, macerated, prepared as an eye wash

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for eye conditions and boils are categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

The fruit should be properly washed and cleaned, and all external trichomes (hairs) should be removed, as they can be irritating to the skin and the mucous membranes.

For eye application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination with pathogenic germs or foreign matter that may irritate the conjunctiva.

Limit use to three days.  If no improvement is observed, seek qualified medical attention.

In the event of local adverse reactions, discontinue treatment.

The fruit of the Abelmoschus esculentus is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research23

There is documented information indicating that it has traditionally been used in the following ways:

For eye conditions:

To prepare an aqueous maceration, wash and cut 4-5 medium sized fruits (5 cm), and add them to 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water; let the mixture stand until mucilaginous, then filter the preparation before applying as a wash.

For boils:

Wash the fruit well, then crush it.  Apply 2 to 5 g of this crushed matter to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88 MODIFIÉ EN TEST
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 BASU KP, GHOSH D, 1943
Availability of Ca in lady's finger (Hibiscus esculentus), cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata), drumstick (Moringa oleifera), and amaranth tender (Amaranthus gangeticus). I. Experiments. Indian J Med Res 31:29.

4 WOOLFE ML, CHAPLIN MF, OTCHERE G, 1977
Studies on the mucilages extracted from okra fruits (Hibiscus esculentus) and baobab leaves (Adansonia digitata). J Sci Food Agr28:519.

5 DEMETRIADES SD, 1956
Chromatographic detection of free amino-acids in normal iron-deficient plants of Hibiscus esculentus. Nature 177:95.

6 KOSHIOKA M, NISHIJIMA T, YAMAZAKI H, 1996
Endogenous gibberellins in the immature seeds of okra. J Plant Physiol 149(1-2):129-132.

7 BUREAU JL, BUSHWAY RJ, 1986
HPLC determination of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables in the United States. J Food Sci(51)1:128-130.

8 SCHMIDT JH, WELLS R, 1990
Evidence for the presence of gossypol in malvaceous plants other than those in the "cotton tribe". J Agr Food Chem 38(2):505-508.

9 BERRY SK, 1980
The fatty acid composition and cyclopropene fatty acid content of the maturing okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits. Pertanika3(2):82-86.

10 BANDYUKOVA VA, LIGAI LV, 1987
A chemical investigation of the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus. Chem Nat Comp 23(3):376-377.

11 DANIEL M, 1989
Polyphenols of some Indian vegetables. Curr Sci 58(23):1332-1334.

12 OSMAN AM, YOUNES MEG, ATA FM, 1974
Chemical examinations of local plants: Part X. Comparative studies between the constituents of some parts of Hibiscus esculentus (Egyptian okra). Indian J Chem 12:1019A.

13 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p7.

15 GEORGE M, PANDALAI KM 1949
Investigation on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res37:169-181.

16 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1992
Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

18 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995
Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

19 YASUKAWA K, YAMAGUCHI A, ARITA J, SAKURAI S, IKEDA A, TAKIDO M, 1993
Inhibitory effect of edible plant extract on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear oedema in mice. Phytother Res 7(2):185-189.

20 MANDA F, TADERA K, AOYAMA K, 1992
Skin lesions due to okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.): proteolytic activity and allergenicity of okra. Contact Derm 26(2):95-100.

21 MORTON JF, 1981
Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. Springfield, USA: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

22 UEDA A, MANDA F, AOYAMA K, UEDA T, OBAMA K, LI Q, TOCHIGI T, 1993
Immediate-type allergy related to okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) picking and packing. Environ Res 62(2):189-199.

23CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Apuntes científicos. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

24 Olmedo D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005
Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

25 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009
Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Prosopis juliflora


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: bayawond blan

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, juice, instillation1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for bacterial conjunctivitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Contact with conjunctiva-irritating substances should be avoided.

For conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the leaf juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition or should the ganglionar disorder persist more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For eye injuries:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

All home-made preparations with medicinal herbs for eye use should be disposed of 24 hours after preparation.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 ZWAVING J, 1986 Selección fitoquímica preliminar en algunas plantas TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universidad de Groningen, Groningen, Nederland.

3 AHMAD V, BASHA A, HAQUE W, 1978 New alkaloids from Prosopis juliflora. Z Naturforsch Ser 33:347.

4 OTT-LONGONI R, VISWANATHAN N, HESSE M, 1980 The structure of the alkaloid juliprosopine from Prosopis juliflora. Helv Chim Acta 63:2119-2129.

5 WILLAMAN J, LI H, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia 33(3A)Supp.

6 AHMAD VU, SULTANA A, 1989 A terpenoid diketone from the leaves ofProsopis juliflora. Phytochemistry 28(1):278-279.

7 MALHOTRA S, MISRA K, 1981 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-0-rhamnoside from the roots of Prosopis juliflora. Phytochemistry 20(8):2043-2044.

8 SHUKLA NEE RV, MISRA K, 1981 Two flavonoid glycosides from the bark of Prosopis juliflora. Phytochemistry 20(1):339-340.

9 MALHOTRA S, MISRA K, 1981 An ellagic acid glycoside from the pods of Prosopis juliflora. Phytochemistry 20:860-861.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p134.

11 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986 Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Hollande.

12 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

13 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1992 Antigonorrheal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 AQEEL A, KHURSHEED AK, VIQARUDDIN A, SABIHA Q, 1989 Antimicrobial activity of julifloricine isolated from Prosopis juliflora. Arzneimittelforschung 39(6):652-655.

15 AHMAD A, KHAN KA, AHMAD VU, QAZI S, 1988 Antibacterial activity of an alkaloidal fraction of Prosopis juliflora. Fitoterapia 59(6):481-484.

16 KHURSHEED AK, Arshad HF, VIQARUDDIN A, Sabiha Q, ShEikh AR, Tahir SH, 1986 In vitro studies of antidermatophytic activity of juliflorine and its screening as carcinogen in Salmonella/microsome test system. Arzneimittelforschung 36(1):17-19.

17 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

18 DUKE JA, 1988 Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

19 FOX EC, 1941 Mesquite wood dermatitis. Arch Ama Dermatol Syphilol 44:1098.

20 THAKUR IS, 1986 Fractionation and immunochemical characterization of Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen. Biochem Int 13(6):951-960.

21 THAKUR IS, SHARMA JD, 1985 Isolation and characterization of allergens of Prosopis juliflora pollen grains. Biochem Int 11(6):903-912.