asthenia, weakness

Beta vulgaris


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : remolacha
  • Haiti : bètrouj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

root, juice, taken orally with sugar and/or honey and/or milk1-3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for period delay (amenorrhoea), asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to health risks involved with asthenia and weakness, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

The root of Beta vulgaris is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of sucrose.

For period delay (amenorrhoea), asthenia and weakness:

Wash the fresh crude root. Prepare 100 mL juice. Drink one or more times a day29.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 CHIERICI L, 1953 Allantoin and tyrosine in beets. Ateneo Parmense 24:185-188.

5 DUBBELS R, REITER RJ, KLENKE E, GOEBEL A, SCHNAKENBERG E, EHLERS C, SCHIWARA HW, SCHLOOT W, 1995 Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pineal Res 18(1):28-31.

6 TYIHAK E, 1964 Effective component in the effect of the red beet (Beta vulgaris var conditiva) on tumors. Naturwissenschaften 51:315-316.

7 IKEKITA M, MORIYA H, MORIWAKI C, RURIKAWA T, 1979 Some properties of anti-bradykinin substance from beet (Beta vulgaris L. var rapaDumort.f rubra DC.) roots. Yakugaku Zasshi 99:607-611.

8 NEURATH GB, DUNGER M, PEIN FG, AMBROSIUS D, SCHREIBER O, 1977 Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(4):275-282.

9 PARFENENKO VV, BUZINA GV, LUTSENKO OK, 1974 Production of gel-forming beet pectin in the presence of 1.1% hydrochloric acid. Khlebopek Konditer Prom 1974(10):20.

10 CHOLLET MM, 1950 Sucrose and raffinose in beets. Bull Soc Bot Fr 1950:173-177.

11 PIATTELLI M, MINALE L, PROTA G, 1965 Pigments of centrospermae. III. Betaxanthins from Beta vulgaris L. Phytochemistry 4:121-125.

12 HERRMANN K, 1957 Oxidative enzymes and phenolic substrate in vegetables and fruit. I. hydroxycinnamic acids. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 106:341-348.

13 BURBA M, NITZSCHKE U, 1974 Oxalic acid in sugar beet roots. Int Sugar J 76:326.

14 TAKAHASHI H, SASAKI T, ITO M, 1987 New flavonoids isolated from infected sugar beet roots. Bull Chem Soc Japan 60(6):2261-2262.

15 ELLIGER CA, HALLOIN JM, 1994 Phenolics induced in Beta vulgaris by Rhizoctonia solani infection. Phytochemistry 37(3):691-693.

16 YOSHIKAWA M, MURAKAMI T, KADOYA M, MATSUDA H, MURAOKA O, YAMAHARA J, MURAKAMI N, 1996 Medicinal foodstuffs. III. Sugar beet. (1): Hypoglycemic oleanolic acid oligoglycosides, betavulgarosides I, II, III, and IV, from the root of Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae). Chem Pharm Bull 44(6):1212-1217.

17 YOSHIKAWA M, MURAKAWI T, KADOYA M, YAMAHARA J, MATSUDA H, 1998 Medicinal foodstuffs. XV. Sugar beet. (2): Structures of betavulgarosides V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X from the roots and leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., Chenopodiaceae). Chem Pharm Bull 46(11):1758-1763.

18 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p26.

19MORON F, 1990 Actividades biológicas de Beta vulgaris. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

20CARBALLO A, RODRIGUEZ A, RODRIGUEZ O, LLENDERROZOS A, 1992 Efectividad de la administración del zumo de raíces de remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.) en el control de la astenia. Estudio clínico controlado. Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas. Santa Clara, Cuba.

21 KOSHIMIZU K, OHIGASHI H, KONDO A, YAMAGUCHI K, 1988 Screening of edible plants against possible anti-tumor promoting activity. Cancer Lett39(3):247-257.

22 GUERIN JC, REVEILLERE HP, 1984 Antifungal activity of plant extracts used in therapy I. Study of 41 plant extracts against 9 fungi species. Ann Pharm Fr42(6):553-559.

23 PRAHOVEANU E, ESANU V, ANTON G, FRUNZULIC S, 1986 Prophylactic effect of a Beta vulgaris extract on experimental influenza infection in mice. Rev Roum Med Virol37(2):121-124.

24 JOSEPH H, GRANDGUILLOTTE M, 1986 Recherches bibliographiques. TRAMIL II, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, UASD/enda-caribe.

25 RAO VSN, DASARADHAN P, KRISHNALAH KS, 1979 Antifertility effect of some indigenous plants. Indian J Med Res70:517-520.

26 NAVRATIL B, ZEMAN L, 1976 Effect of the daily ration and the type of complete mixed feed fed to pregnant sows on the number and weight of piglets. Zivocisna Uyrpba21:295-303.

27 GREER MA, ASTWOOD EB, 1948 The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodine. Endocrinology43:105-119.

28 ALKOFAHI A, ABDELAZIZ A, MAHMOUD I, ABUIRJIE M, HUNAITI A, EL-OQLA A, 1990 Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimicrobial activity of forty Jordanian medicinal plants. Int J Crude Drug Res28(2):139-144.

29 VANACLOCHA B, CAÑIGUERAL S, (eds.) 2003 Beta vulgaris. En: Fitoterapia. Vademecum de Prescripción. 4ta Edición. Editorial MASSON, Barcelona, España, p. 428.

Chamissoa altissima


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Anguilla :
  • Haiti : lyann panye

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, broth (long decoction with salt), orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and toxicity studies.

Due to the health risks involved with asthenia and weakness, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless contraindicated.

 

 

The leaves of Chamissoa altissima are widely used for human consumption.

For asthenia and weakness:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Faculté de Médicine, Université d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 DHENIN J, SUAREZ I, 1990 Datos promedio sobre Chamissoa altissima HBK. Análisis fitoquímicos de hojas. Informe TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

4 DUKE JA, 1999 Chemicals and their biological activities in: Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) HBK. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA. Nov.20,1999. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

5 BLUNDEN G, YANG MH, JANICSAK G, MATHE I, CARABOT-CUERVO A, 1999 Betaine distribution in the Amaranthaceae. Biochem Syst Ecol 27(1):87-92.

6 GARCIA MD, SAENZ MT, 1995 Toxicidad aguda de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.

7 WENIGER B, ITALIANO L, BECK J, ANTON R, ROBINEAU L, 1993 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet inmunomodulateur) dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Tunis, Tunisie: 1er Congrès Intercontinental Plantes Médicinales et Phytothérapie.

Cucurbita moschata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : auyama
  • Haiti : jiroumou
  • Haiti : jiwomon

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, broth, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use for jaundice, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved in hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The fruit and the flower of Cucurbita moschata are widely used for human consumption.

For asthenia and weakness

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For jaundice:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams of flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of the decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of flower.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day28.

For burns:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the leaf juice in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

6 DUKE JA, 2000 Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cucurbita moschata. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, August 10, 2000. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 WASHUTTL J, Reiderer P, Bancher E, 1973 A qualitative and quantitative study of sugar-alcohols in several foods. J Food Sci 38:1262-1263.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p55.

14 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en Medicina Tradicional Popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 VILENCHIK M, 1989 Fundamentos biológicos del envejecimiento y la longevidad. Moscú, URSS: Ed. MIR.

22 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 WENIGER B, 1992 Cytotoxicité, effets immunodulateurs et morphologique des extraits éthanolique 80% et aqueux de feuille deCucurbita. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

24 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990 Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea Soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

25 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

26 CHEN ZK, PU TC, LI DY, JIANG HA, 1980 Therapeutic effect of cucurbitine on dog taeniasis.Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao1(2):124-126.

28 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p226.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008 Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, de la hoja de Curcubita moschata. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Mangifera indica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Guatemala : mango
  • Haiti : mango
  • Saint Lucia : mango
Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for indigestion (burn) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of the flower for bronchitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of the flower for weakness, pneumonia and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should bronchitis, pneumopathy or cough last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit ofMangifera indica is widely used for human consumption.

For cough and pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 leaves in 1 liter of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For bronchitis, indigestion (burn) and weakness:

Prepare an infusion, adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 leaves.  Cover and allow cool down for 5-10 minutes, and then filter.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 CRAVEIRO AA, ANDRADE CH, MATOS FJ, ALENCAR JW, MACHADO MI, 1980 Volatile constituents of Mangifera indica Linn. Rev Latinoamer Quim 11:129.

5 TANAKA T, SUEYASU T, NONAKA G-I, NISHIOKA I, 1984 Tannins and related compounds. XXI. Isolation and characterization of galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoyl esters of benzophenone and xanthone c-glucosides from Mangifera indica L. Chem Pharm Bull 32(7):2676-2686.

6 PROCTOR JTA, CREASY LL, 1969 The anthocyanin of the mango fruit. Phytochemistry 8:2108.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 NIGAM IC, 1962 Studies in some Indian essential oils. Agra Univ J Res Sci 11:147-152.

9 LU ZY, MAO HD, HE MR, LU SY, 1982 Studies on the chemical constituents of mangguo (Mangifera indica) leaf. Chung Ts'ao Yao 13:3-6.

10 PHARM XS, PHARM GK, 1991 The extraction and determination of the flavonoid mangiferin in the bark and leaves of Mangifera indica. Tap Chi Duoc Hoc 5:8-19.

11 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, 1982 Triterpenoids of the leaves of Mangifera indica. Indian J Pharm Sci 44:58-59.

12 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

13 GHOSAL S, BISWAS K, CHATTOPADHYAY BK, 1978 Differences in the chemical constituents of Mangifera indica infected with Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliformae. Phytochemistry 17:689-694.

14 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1989 Alkyl gallates of flowers of Mangifera indica. Fitoterapia 60(3):284.

15 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1993 Studies in the chemical constituents of flowers of Mangifera indica. Part-II. Isolation and characterization of some alkylgallates from blossoms of Mangifera indica. Pak J Sci Ind 35(7/8):276-278.

16 BANDYOPADHYAY C, 1983 Contribution of gas chromatography to food flavor research. Pafai J 5(3):26-30.

17 SAEED AR, KARAMALLA KA, KHATTAB AH, 1976 Polyphenolic compounds in the pulp of Mangifera indica L. J Food Sci 41(4):959-960.

18 MAC LEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of mango fruit. Phytochemistry 21:2523-2526.

19 GAYDOU EM, BOUCHET P, 1984 Sterols, methyl sterols, triterpene alcohols and fatty acids of the kernel fat of different Malagasy mango (Mangifera indica) varieties. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 61(10):1589-1593.

20 ANJANEYULU V, RAVI K, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, CONNOLLY JD, 1989 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 28(5):1471-1477.

21 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA K, RAVI PK, CONNOLLY JD, 1985 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 24(10):2359-2367.

22 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, INDIAN J, 1982 Triterpenoids of the root-bark of Mangifera indica. Pharm Sci 44(4):85-87.

23 KHAN MA, NIZAMI SS, KHAN MNI, AZEEM SW, AHMED Z, 1994 New triterpenes from Mangifera indica. J Nat Prod 57(7):988-991.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p105.

25 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

27GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 SOUZA BRITO ARM, HIRUMA-LIMA CA, LIMA ZP, 2003 Atividades biológicas obtidas dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas e flores da Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL, Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP y Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil.

29 POUSSET J, 1989 Plantes médicinales africaines. Utilisation pratique. Paris, France: ACCT.

30 RAY BN, PAL AK, 1967 Estrogenic activity of tree leaves as animal feed. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 20:6.

31 TRIPATHI RKR, TRIPATHI RN, 1982 Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia 38(3):349-349.

32 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

33 GEORGE M, PANDALAI KM, 1949 Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

34 PATEL VK, VENKATAKRISHNA-BHATT H, 1988 Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26(4):176-184.

35 VIJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA SD, PRASAD SK, 1979 Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 JAIN SR, SHARMA SN, 1967 Hypoglycaemic drugs of Indian indigenous origin. Planta Med 15(4):439-442.

37 MALCOLM SA, SOFOWORA EA, 1969 Antimicrobial activity of selected Nigerian folk remedies and their constituent plants. Lloydia 32:512-517.

38 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41: 463-467.

39 KLOOS H, THIONGO FW, OUMA JH, BUTTERWORTH AE, 1987 Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos district, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 90(4):197-204.

40 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

41 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

42 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986 Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.

44 GUPTA MP, ARIAS TD, CORREA M, LAMBA SS, 1979 Ethnopharmacognostic observations on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Q J Crude Drug Res 17(3/4):115-130.

Musa sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : banana
  • Haiti : bannan matenten

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit pulp, cooked, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962 The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965 Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

7 WONG W, 1976 Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

8 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983 A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

9 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

10 FRIESE FW, 1934 Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

12 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989 Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

13 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

14 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

15 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

16 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

21 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

22 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Musa sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : banana
  • Haiti : bannan matenten

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit pulp, broth with salt, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962 The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965 Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

7 WONG W, 1976 Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

8 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983 A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

9 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

10 FRIESE FW, 1934 Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

12 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989 Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

13 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

14 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

15 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

16 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

21 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

22 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Theobroma cacao


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : cacao

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit (seed), decoction, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should weakness persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

The processed fruit of Theobroma cacao is widely used for human consumption.

For weakness:

Prepare a decoction with 7 seeds in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day for 7 days20.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 KENYHERCZ TM, KISSINGER PT, 1978 Determination of selected acidic, neutral, and basic natural products in cacao beans and processed cocoa. Liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Lloydia 41(2):130-139.

3 SJOBERG AM, RAJAMA J, 1984 Simple method for the determination of alkaloids in cocoa using paper chromatography and UV spectrometry. J Chromatogr 295(1):291-294.

4 GURNEY KA, EVANS LV, ROBINSON DS, 1991 Extraction of purine alkaloids from cocoa tissues and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal 2(1):15-19.

5 RIGGIN RM, KISSENGER PT, 1976 Identification of salsolinol as a phenolic component in powdered cocoa and cocoa-based products. J Agric Food Chem 24(4):900.

6 VITZTHUM OG, WERKHOFF P, HUBERT P, 1975 Volatile components of roasted cocoa: basic fraction. J Food Sci 40:911-916.

7 PORTER LJ, MA Z, CHAN BG, 1991 Cacao procyanidins: major flavanoids and identification of some minor metabolites. Phytochemistry 30(5):1657-1663.

8 THOMPSON RS, JACQUES D, HASLAM E, TANNER RJN, 1972 Plant proanthocyanidins. Part I. Introduction: the isolation, structure, and distribution in nature of plant procyanidins. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:1387-1399.

9 VAN PRAAG M, STEIN HS, TIBBETTS MS, 1968 Steam volatile aroma constituents of roasted cocoa beans. J Agric Food Chem 16:1005.

10 LIMA VASCONCELOS MN, LEAO DE SILVA M, SOARES MAIA JG, GOTTLIEB OR, 1975 Chemical study of cupu seeds. Acta Amazonica 5:293.

11 ADOMAKO D, 1977 Fatty acid composition and characteristics of Pentadesma butyracea fat extracted from Ghana seeds. J Sci Food Agr 28:384-386.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p159.

13 PEREZ C, ANESINI C, 1994 Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth. Amer J Chinese Med 22(2):169-174.

14 MORRISSEY RB, BURKHOLDER BD, TARKA SM, 1984 Effects of cocoa upon the growth of weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats fed fluid whole milk diets. Nutr Rep Int 29(2):263-271.

15 OSAKABE N, YAMAGISHI M, SANPPONGI C, TAKIZAWA T, ADACHI T 1995 Antioxidant-containing beverages for preventing gastric ulcer. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-07 274,894.

16 HARDMAN JG, GILMAN AG, LIMBIRD LE (Eds.), 1996 The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, International Edition.

17 KATZUNG BG (Ed.), 1999 Basic and clinical pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Education, New York, USA.

18 PDR Herbals, 2003 Cocoa: Theobroma cacao. The PDR for Herbal Medicines, PDR Electronic Library, Medical Economics Company, PhytoPharm US Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals, Metuchen, USA, Oct. 8, 2003. URL: http://www.mdcc.edu/medical/library

19 ANON (Select Committee on GRAS Substances), 1976 GRAS status of foods and food additives. Washington DC,USA: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration41, 38644

20 FLORIPE A, ALTAMIRANO V, 1998 Plantas que curan. Managua, Nicaragua: Imprimatur. p35.