fungal growth (mycosis between fingers or toes)

Manihot esculenta


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : yuca
  • Haiti : manyok
  • Haiti : mannyòk
  • Martinique : manyok
  • Martinique : mannyòk

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, mashed, cataplasm2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for headache and dermal fungal growths such as athlete's foot (mycosis between fingers or toes) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application against fungal growth (mycosis between fingers or toes), due care should be taken in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The leaf can cause hypersensitivity reactions.

Manihot esculentashould not be ingested by persons with thyroid disorders4.

The cooked tuber of Manihot esculenta is widely used as a vegetable and a source of starch.

For fungal growth (mycosis between fingers or toes) and headache:

Wash leaf thoroughly, crush, and apply 5-10 grams on the affected area of the skin twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

4 LINDNER E, 1995 Toxicología de los alimentos. 4ª ed. Madrid, España: Editorial Acribia S.A. p688.

5 ROSA DE BATTISTI C, TELES F, COELHO D, JOSE DA SILVEIRA A, BATISTA C, 1981 Determination of hydrogen cyanide toxicity and total soluble carbohydrates in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Rev Ceres 28:521-525.

6 VALYASEVI A, DHANAMITTA S, 1974 Studies of bladder stone disease in Thailand. XVII. Effect of exogenous sources of oxalate on crystalluria. Amer J Clin Nutr 27(8):877-882.

7 KAMIL M, ILYAS M, RAHMAN W, OKIGAWA M, KAWANO N, 1994 Biflavones from Manihot utilissima. Phytochemistry 13(11):2619-2620.

8 SUBRAMANIAN S, NAGARAJAN S, SULOCHANA N, 1971 Flavonoids of some Euphorbiaceous plants. Phytochemistry 10:2548-2549.

9 SAKAI T, NAKAGAWA Y, 1988 Diterpenic stress metabolites from cassava roots. Phytochemistry 27(12):3769-3779.

10 LA LAGUNA F, 1993 Purification of fresh cassava root polyphenols by solid-phase extraction with Amberlite xad-8 resin. J Chromatogr A 657(2):445-449.

11 LYKKESFELDT J, MOLLER BL, 1994 Cyanogenic glucosides in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz. Acta Chem Scand 48(2):178-180.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 CACERES A, 2000 Actividad antibiótica in vitro del zumo de hoja fresca deManihot esculenta. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 MACRAE WD, HUDSON JB, TOWERS GH, 1988 Studies on the pharmacological activity of Amazonian Euphorbiaceae. J Ethnopharmacol 22(2):143-172.

15 GASPERI-CAMPANI A, BARBIERI L, BATTELLI MG, STIRPE F, 1985 On the distribution of ribosome-inactivating proteins amongst plants. J Nat Prod 48(3):446-454.

16 ITOKAWA H, HIRAYAMA F, TSURUOKA S, MIZUNO K, TAKEYA K, NITTA A, 1990 Screening test for antitumor activity of crude drugs (III). Studies on antitumor activity of Indonesian medicinal plants. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 44(1):58-62.

17 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

18 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p687.

19 MADUAGWU EN, UMOH IB, 1982 Detoxification of cassava leaves by simple traditional methods. Toxicol Lett 10(2-3):245-248.

20 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de tubérculo fresco rayado de Manihot esculenta Crantz. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

21 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja machacada de Manihot esculenta. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Senna alata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : guajabo
  • Guatemala : barajo
  • Martinique : kasyalata
  • Tobago : wild senna
  • Tobago : wild guava
  • Saint Vincent : river grava
  • Saint Vincent : river senna
  • Venezuela : tarantantán

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, crushed, cataplasm2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, paño (pityriasis versicolor), pimples, ringworm and fungal growth (mycosis between fingers) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For skin conditions and pimples:

Grind 50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets) and add 1 liter (4 cups) of boiled water.  Allow to settle for 12 hours.  Wash affected area 2-3 times a day3.

For tinea (ringworm) and fungal growth (mycosis between fingers):

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Properly wash leaf and crush it.  Apply 5 grams (1 spoonful) of vegetal material on affected area of skin.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Asociation pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 Castillo D, Rodriguez S, de los Santos C, Belen A, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

5 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

6 HARRISON J, GARRO CV, 1977 Study on anthraquinone derivatives fromCassia alata L. (Leguminosae). Rev Peru Bioquim 1(1):31-33.

7 MULCHANDANI NB, HASSARAJANI SA, 1975 Isolation of 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone fromCassia alata (leaves). Phytochemistry 14:2728b.

8 HAUPTMANN H, NAZARIO LL, 1950 Some constituents of the leaves of Cassia alata. J Am Chem Soc 72:1492-1495.

9 RAO CK, SUBHASHINI G, 1986 Saponins & leucoanthocyanins in Cassia L. Curr Sci 55(6):320-321.

10 SMOLENSKI SJ, SILINIS H, FARNSWORTH NR, 1975 Alkaloid screening. VI. Lloydia 38(3):225-255.

11 RAI MK, UPADHYAY S, 1988 Screening of medicinal plants of Chindwara district against Trichophyton mentagrophytes: a causal organism of Tinea pedis. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 30(1/2):33-36.

12 FIALLO M, VAZQUEZ TINEO M, 1992 Evaluación in vitro de plantas usadas en afecciones de la piel: Extractos vegetales antimicóticos y antimicrobianos. Informe TRAMIL. CIBIMA, Fac de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma UASD, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

13 ACHARARIT C, PANYAYONG W, RUCHATAKOMUT E, 1983 Inhibitory action of some Thai herbians (medicinal plants) to fungi. Mahidol Univ Fac Pharm Bangkok, Thailand.

14 BENJAMIN TV, LAMIKANRA A, 1981 Investigation ofCassia alata, a plant used in Nigeria in the treatment of skin diseases. Quart J Crude Drug Res 19(2/3):93-96.

15 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

16 FUZELLIER MC, MORTIER F, LECTARD P, 1982 Activité antifongique deCassia alata L. Ann Pharm Fr 40(4):357-363.

17 MATTA DC, 2000 Determinación de la actividad anti Neisseria gonorrhoeae de extractos vegetales por un método de dilución en agar (Tesis de química-biología). Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

18 PALANICHAMY S, AMALA BHASKAR E, BAKTHAVATHSALAM R, NAGARAJAN S, 1991 Wound healing activity of Cassia alata. Fitoterapia 62(1):153-156.

19 DAMODARAN S, VENKATARAMAN S, 1994 A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, Linn. Leaf extract against pityriasis versicolor. J Ethnopharmacol 42(1):19-23.

20 MOKKHASMIT M, NGARMWATHANA W, SAWASDIMONGKOL K, PERMPHIPHAT U, 1971 Pharmacological evaluation of Thai medicinal plants (cont.). J Med Assoc Thai 54(7):490-504.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BARCELO H, LAYNEZ A, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Clases Toxicidad Aguda (CTA) de hoja frescade Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de la maceración acuosa de hoja fresca de Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 MOKKHASMIT M, SWATDIMONGKOL K, SATRAWAHA P, 1971 Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants. Bull Dept Med Sci 12(2-4):36-65.

24 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, BETANCOURT J, GARCIA A, PILOTO J, DECALO M, 2002 Passiflora incarnataL. y Senna alata (L.) Roxo: Estudio toxicogenético que emplea 2 sistemas de ensayos a corto plazo. Rev Cubana Plant Med 7(1):27-31.

25 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

26 LOGARTO PARRA A, SILVA YHEBRA R, GUERRA SARDINAS I, IGLESIAS BUELA L, 2001 Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

27 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas tópica de hoja fresca machacada de Senna alata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.