nervous breakdown

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • cabalonga
  • fey sezi
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 SIDDIQUI S, SIDDIQUI BS, ADIL Q, BEGUM S, 1992
Cardenolides and triterpenoids of the leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 31(10):3541-3546.

4 BEGUM S, ADIL Q, SIDDIQUI BS, SIDDIQUI S, 1993
Constituents of the leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. J Nat Prod 56(4):613-617.

5 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, WAN ASC, 1992
Cardiac glycosides from the leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 31(9):3189-3193.

6 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, YAHARA S, NOHARA T, 1994
Glycosides of 19-formylthevetiogenin and 5-alpha-thevetiogenin from Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 37(5):1429-1432.

7 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, NOHARA T, 1992
C-Nor-D-homo-cardenolide glycosides from Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 31(1):251-254.

8 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, YAHARA S, NOHARA T, 1995
Minor iridoids from Thevetia peruviana. Phytochemistry 38(3):793-794.

9 DANIEL M, SABNIS S, 1978
Chemotaxonomical studies on Apocynaceae. Indian J Exp Biol 16(4):512-513.

10 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plant. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

11 ABE F, IWASE Y, YAMAUCHI T, YAHARA S, NOHARA T, 1995
Flavonol sinapoyl glycosides from leaves of Thevetia peruviana. Phytochemistry 40(2):577-581.

12 LI CC, 1962
Pharmacological investigation of folia Thevetia peruviana Merr. Yao Xue Xue Bao 13:753-756.

13 THORP RH, WATSON TR, 1953
A survey of the occurrence of cardio-active constituents in plants growing wild in Australia. I. Families Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Aust J Exp Biol 31(5):529-532.

14 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

15 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

16 EDDLESTON M, ARIARATNAM CA, SJOSTROM L, JAYALATH S, RAJAKANTHAN K, RAJAPAKSE S, COLBERT D, MEYER WP, PERERA G, Attapattu s, kularatne sa, sheriff mr, warrell da, 2000
Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital. Heart 83(3):301-306.

17 PHADKE MV, NAIK SG, 1963
Yellow oleander (Cerebra thevetia) poisoning. (Case report). Indian J Child Health 12:210-213.

18 Abreu Matos FJ, 2000
Plantas medicinais, guía de seleção e emprego de plantas usadas em fitoterapia no nordeste do Brasil. 2ª ed. Fortaleza, Brasil: UFC Imprensa universitária. p97.

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominica:

  • bwa kasav
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for nervous breakdown is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Not for use concurrently with alcoholic beverages or drugs that are depressants of the central nervous system.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the nervous breakdown last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use for more than seven consecutive days.

For nervous breakdown: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 PINEDA M, 1990
Fitoquímica de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominica:

  • thyme
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, infusion, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for nervous breakdown (stroke) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or in children under 12 years of age.

Thymus vulgarisis widely used as a spice for human consumption.

For nervous breakdown (stroke):

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1-2 grams of leaves.  Cover pot, leave to settle for 5-10 minutes and filter28.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 KLICK S, HERRMANN K, 1988
Glucosides and glucose esters of hydroxybenzoic acids in plants. Phytochemistry 27(7):2177-2180.

3 SCHULTZ J, HERRMANN K, 1980
Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

4 MIURA K, INAGAKI T, NAKATANI N, 1989
Structure and activity of new deodorant biphenyl compounds from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Chem Pharm Bull 37(7):1816-1819.

5 NAKATANI N, MIURA K, INAGAKI T, 1989
Structure of new deodorant biphenyl compounds from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their activity against methyl mercaptan. Agr Biol Chem 53(5):1375-1381.

6 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, DOMMISSE RA, ESMANS EL, LEMLI JA, 1982
Three methylated flavones from Thymus vulgaris. Phytochemistry 21(10):2581-2583.

7 MIURA K, NAKATANI N, 1989
Antioxidative activity of flavonoids from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Agr Biol Chem 53(11):3043-3045.

8 SAMEJIMA K, KANAZAWA K, ASHIDA H, DANNO GI, 1995
Luteolin: A strong antimutagen against dietary carcinogen, TRP-P-2, in peppermint, sage, and thyme. J Agric Food Chem 43(2):410-414.

9 BARBERAN FAT, FERRERES F, TOMAS F, GUIRADO A, 1986
Electron impact mass spectrometric differentiation of 5,6-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy- and 5,8-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavones. Phytochemistry 25(4):923-925.

10 KRAUSE M, GALENSA R, 1991
Analysis of enantiomeric flavanones in plant extracts by high performance liquid chromatography on a cellulose triacetate based chiral stationary phase. Chromatographia 32(12):69-72.

11 OLECHNOWICZ-STEPHEN W, LAMER-ZARAWSKA E, 1975
Investigation of flavonoid fraction of some crude drugs from the family Labiatae (Herba Serpylli, Herba Thymi, Majoranae, Herba Origani). Herba Pol 21:347-356.

12 MOSSA JS, AL-YAHYA MA, HASSAN M, 1987
Physicochemical characteristics and spectroscopy of the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris growing in Saudi Arabia. Int J Crude Drug Res 25(1):26-34.

13 POPESCU H, 1975
Aetheroleum thymi produced in Romania. Pharmacia (Bucharest) 23:153.

14 KARAWYA M, HIFNAWY M, 1974
Analytical study of the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris L. growing in Egypt. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 57:997.

15 VAMPA G, ALBASINI A, PROVVISIONATO A, BIANCHI A, MELEGARI M, 1988
Chemical and microbiological studies on the essential oil of Thymus. Plant Med Phytother 22(3):195-202.

16 POULOSE A, CROTEAU R, 1978
Biosynthesis of aromatic monoterpenes: conversion of gamma-terpinene to p-cymene and thymol in Thymus vulgaris. Arch Biochem Biophys 187(2):307-314.

17 HASSAN M, AL-YAHYA M, MOSSA J, 1985
PMR determination of the major constituents of the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris growing in Saudi Arabia (conference). Chapel Hill, USA: Internat Res Cong Nat Prod, Coll Pharm Univ N Carolina, Abstr. nº145.

18 BLAQUE G, 1923
Thymol plants. Bull Sci Pharmacol 30:201-211.

19 ZANI F, MASSIMO G, BENVENUTI S, BIANCHI A, ALBASINI A, Melegari M, Vampa G, Bellotti A, Mazza P, 1991
Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. Planta Med 57(3):237-241.

20 OLSZOWSKA O, FURMANOWA M, 1987
Micropropagation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) from nodal segments. Herba Pol 33(2):137-144.

21 FARNLOF A, 1992
Natural drugs. Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Health Food Council.

22 ANON, 2002
Monografia Thymi herba 2002
Pharmacopee Européene, 4 ed. Strasbourg, France: Conseil de l'Europe.

23 DUKE JA, 1985
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

24 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, LEMLI JA, 1981
Pharmacological and chemical investigation of thyme liquid extracts. Planta Med 41(2):129-135.

25 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, LEMLI JA, 1983
Spasmolytic activity of the flavonoids from Thymus vulgaris. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 25(5):9-14.

26 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, 1980
Chemical and pharmacological investigation on thymi herba and its liquid extracts. Planta Med 39:253-254.

27 WESLEY-HADZIJA B, BOHING P, 1956
Influence of some essential oils on the central nervous system of fish. Ann Pharm Fr 14:283.

28 ROCKWELL P, RAW J, 1979
A mutagenic screening of various herbs, spices, and food additives. Nutr Cancer 1:10-15.

29 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982
Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

30 HAROUN EM, MAHMOUD OM, ADAM SE, 2002
Effect of feeding Cuminum cyminum fruits, Thymus vulgaris leaves or their

mixture to rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 44(2):67-69

31 LESLIE GB, SALMON G, 1979
Repeated dose toxicity studies and reproductive studies on nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Swiss Med 1(1/2):1-3.

32 Code of Federal Regulations, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

33 TYLER V, BRADY L, ROBBERS J, 1988
Pharmacognosy. Philadelphia, USA: Lea & Febiger, p127-128.

34 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Thymus vulgaris Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 20, 2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

35 WHO, 1999
Herba Thymi. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Feb. 28, 2003, URL: www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/pdf/p262