Psidium guajava

scientific name: 
Psidium guajava L.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Shrub or tree up to 10 m high, bark peeling in large, smooth, thin, flakes. Leaves, opposite in pairs, elliptic or oblong, obtuse at tip, cuneate at base, blades 7-14 x 2.5-5 cm hairy beneath and transparent dots; flower usually solitary, petals white, stamens numerous; fruit highly aromatic and edible, a globose or pear-shaped berry, 2-6 cm in diameter, ripening yellow with yellow or pinkish flesh surrounding numerous hard seeds.

Voucher(s)

Delens,23,VEN

Gimenez,275705-33,VEN

Girón,267,CFEH

Jiménez,41,JBSD

Medina,41,CICY

Longuefosse&Nossin,32, HAVPMC

Pinzón,21898,CUVC

Espinosa,6178,FLORPAN

Delaigue,24,NHTT

Soto,45862,CR

Fuentes,4754,ROIG

juma (vertigo and weakness):

leaf, decoction, with sugar and salt, orally, usually taken together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa1

ataque de nervios:

leaf, mashed, inhaled2

diarrhoea:

leaf, mashed, orally5,60

éruptions cutanées:

fresh leaf, decoction, in bath, alone or together with Hamelia patens and Punica granatum, also used together with Spondias purpurea11

diarrhoea:

crust of the fresh stem, decoction, orally62-64

vomiting:

  sprouts, decoction or infusion, orally1

diarrhoea:

fruit, natural, as food3,5

diarrhoea:

fruit, juice, with salt or sugar, orally7

ataque de nervios:

leaf, decoction with salt and sugar, orally and rubbed, usually together with Annona muricata1

diarrhoea:

leaf, decoction or infusion (sometimes with salt or sugar), orally1-2,6-7,9

diarrhoea:

flower buds and leaf shoots, infusion, orally4,12,60,71-72

diarrhoea:

flower and apical bud, decoction or infusion, orally5,8,10

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

TRAMIL Research53-54

The aqueous extract (0.012, 0.127, 0.636 and 1.273 mg/mL) and the hexane extract (0.053, 0.265 and 0.53 mg/mL) of the dried leaf in vitro in a test of short-term somatic segregation induction on Aspergillus nidulans did not show genotoxic effects.

TRAMIL Research55

The powdered dried leaf in a single oral administration to mice (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg) in a test of micro-nuclei induction in bone marrow did not show genotoxic effects.

TRAMIL Research56

The LD50 of the powdered dried leaf administered orally to rats was higher than 2 g/kg.

TRAMIL Research57

The powdered dried leaf was administered orally to rats in a single dose (2 g/kg).  There was no mortality, no evident toxicity signs appeared for a 14-day observation period, and there was no evidence of changes in histopathological studies.

Trabajo TRAMIL61 (will be translated in 3rd Ed.)

El extracto acuoso (decocción 4.78%), liofilizado, de corteza de tallo fresca, concentración de 333.33 mg/mL de agua, vía oral, (1000 mg/kg/día) a 18 ratones Hsd:ICR de 27.14 ± 2.69 g (9 machos y 9 hembras) durante 5 días con 12 días adicionales de observación, no presentó mortalidad, según el protocolo EPA.OPPTS.870.3100. El control se realizó con agua (0.3 mL/20 g de ratón) a otros 10 ratones de la misma cepa y características. No se evidenció ningún signo de toxicidad (Test Polidimensional de Irwing) ni se observaron cambios en los pesos corporales más que los normales en la curva de crecimiento. La autopsia macroscópica no evidenció alteraciones en los órganos.

Trabajo TRAMIL70 (will be translated in 3rd Ed.)

El extracto acuoso (decocción 4.42%) liofilizado, de hoja fresca, concentración de 500 mg/mL de agua, vía tópica 4 horas diariamente durante 5 días consecutivos a 3 conejos New Zealand, 0.5 mL en un cuadrante de 5 cm2 con pelo cortado del lomo, control contralateral con agua, protocolo EPA 870.2500, no provocó edema ni eritema durante el ensayo ni en los 11 días adicionales de observación.

The methanolic extract (5 mg/plate) in Salmonella typhymurium TA-98 andEscherichia coli WP-2 models against toxicity induced by ultraviolet radiations and experimental mutagens induced antimutagenic activity58.

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use for children or for lactating women.

TRAMIL Research14

The screening of the decoction of the leaf gathered in Panama did not find quercetin, but found quercitrin at a concentration of 0.0059 mg/mL (equivalent to 0.0044 mg/mL of quercetin).  On the other hand, both quercetin and quercitrin were found in the methanolic extract, at a concentration of 0.0174 mg/mL and 0.0549 mg/mL, respectively.

The fruit contains essential oil: ß-bisabolene, δ-cadinene, caryophyllene and derivatives, α-humulene, α and ß-selinene15-16, curcumene, farnesene15; flavonoids: guaijaverin, quercetin17, leucocyanidin17; triterpenes: α and ß-amyrin and derivatives, lupeol, arjunolic, asiatic, proto-bassic, brahmic, maslinic, ursolic18 and oleanolic18-19 acids; benzenoids: benzaldehyde16,18, diphenic, gallic acids17, 2-phenethyl, p-methyl-styrene acetate, toluene16; sulfur compounds: benzothiazole, 2-methyl-thio-benzothiazole, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, di-isopropyl-disulfide, 6-mercapto-hexan-1-ol, pentane-2-thiol, dimethyl-sulfone, 5-ethoxy-thiazole, 2-ethyl-thiophene, 2-methyl-thiophene, 3-methyl-thiophene20, steroids18-19, lipids; coumarins17,22; oxygen heterocycle16; alkanes16,20-21; alkenes16.

The flower contains flavonoids: guaijaverin, quercetin17,23, leucocyanidin17, triterpenes: oleanolic acid23.

The leaf contains benzenoids: amritoside, ellagic acid24, gentisic acid25, pendunculagin26, flavonoids: guaijavarin, hyperoside27, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin24, procyanidin B-1, B-2 and B-328, quercetin24,29, iso-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside, quercitrin27; tannins: casuarinin30, guavin A31, B28, C and D31, pedunculagin, stachiurin, strictinin, iso-strictinin, tellimagrandin I30; triterpenes: maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids32; monoterpenes: a-pinene33.

The bark contains tannins: acutissimin A and B, castalagin, casuarinin, eugenigrandin A, grandinin, guajavin, guajavin B, mongolicain A, pedunculagin, psidinin A, B, and C, psiguavin, valolaginic and vescalagin acids; flavonoids: (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, procyanidin B-1, prodelphinidin B-1, leucocyanidin34; benzenoids: 3-4-5-trimethoxy-1-O-ß-D-(2'-6'-di-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside-phenol35, 3-3'-di-O-methyl-ellagic acid, 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid22.

The stem bark contains benzenoids: amritoside, ellagic acid24; flavonoids; tannins28.

The wood contains benzenoids: gallic acid, amritoside triterpenes: oleanolic acid36; flavonoids: leucocyanidin34,36, quercetin36.

The root contains triterpenes: arjunolic acid37; benzenoids: gallic acid, ethyl gallate,

2-,3,-4,-6-tetra-O-galloyl-glucose, hexagalloyl-glucose; flavonoids: leucocyanidin, leucocyanin, quercetin; steroids: ß-sitosterol, tannins38.

Proximate analysis of 100 g of fruit39: calories: 69; water: 80.6%; proteins: 1%; fat: 0.4%; carbohydrates: 17.3%; fiber: 5.6%; ash: 0.7%; calcium: 15 mg; phosphorus: 24 mg; iron: 0.7 mg; sodium: 4 mg; potassium: 291 mg; carotene: 75 µg; thiamine: 0.05 mg; riboflavin: 0.04 mg; niacin: 0.10 mg; ascorbic acid: 132 mg.

Proximate analysis of 100 g of dried leaf39: water: 0%; proteins: 11.7%; fat: 8.7%; carbohydrates: 71.9%; fiber: 16.1%; ash: 7.7%; calcium: 1340 mg; phosphorus: 160 mg.

TRAMIL Research40-41

The leaf tincture (20%) (20g/100 mL of ethanol 70% v/v), dissolved in 30 mL of water (10 mL every 8 hours) and administered orally to humans with symptoms of diarrhea, significantly increased the number of patients cured 24, 48 and 72 hours after administration, compared to the controls.

TRAMIL Research42

The hydroalcoholic extract (80%) from the leaf, obtained through percolation and defattening with petroleum ether, and orally administered to mice (50, 100 and 300 mg/mL) in the motor activity test measuring horizontal displacement (Varimex device), caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease (p<0.001) of motor activity, which was maintained for 90 minutes following administration.  Doses are stated in weight of dried plant.

TRAMIL Research43

The hydroalcoholic extract (40%) from the dried leaf (107 mg/mL) in vitro (100 mL/well) in the agar plate diffusion test inhibited by less than 50% (compared to controls) the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC15008, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633,Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC142077, and showed no effects on Candida albicans ATCC10231.

TRAMIL Research44

The leaf tincture (20%) (20 g/100 mL of ethanol 70% v/v) administered orally to male Swiss mice (200, 400 and 800 mg of drug/kg) caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in intestinal motility.

Trabajo TRAMIL68 (will be translated in 3rd Ed.)

El extracto acuoso (decocción 4.78%), liofilizado, de corteza de tallo fresca, concentración de 333.33 mg/mL de agua, vía oral, (1000 mg/kg/día) a un grupo de 8 ratones Hsd:ICR(CD-1) de 24.3 ± 1.5 g (4 machos y 4 hembras). El control del vehículo se realizó con agua (0.3 mL/20 g de ratón), el control positivo recibió piridostigmina (3.5 mg/kg), el control negativo atropina (50 mg/kg) a otros 3 grupos de ratones de mismas características. Metodología de Wei-Wei Zhang et al.69 modificada por el LEBi.

El tratamiento administrado no modificó el tránsito intestinal bajo las condiciones experimentales dadas (p >0,05).

The aqueous extract from the leaf was activein vitro against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina lutea, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus albus andS. aureus45; and against strains of Epidermophyton floccosum and Candida albicans46.

The aqueous extract from the dried leaf (40 mg/mL) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis47.

The aqueous extract (8 mg/mL) inhibited the growthin vitro of Staphylococcus aureus andS. epidermidis, using the total platelet count method.  In turbidity measurements, the same extract inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. typhimurium47.

The aqueous extract (40 mg/mL) from the leaf and the fruit,using the zone of inhibition method, was active in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus 1-048102 and 3-04810747.

The leaf extract (6.5 mg/mL), using total platelet count and turbidity measurements, inhibited in vitro nine strains of Staphylococcus aureus.  The aqueous extract from the fruit (6.5 mg/mL) did not show significant activity47.

The leaf tincture in vitro was inactive against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Vibrio cholerae48.

The aqueous extract from the leaf in vitro in the isolated guinea pig ileum test (1 mg/mL) showed spasmolytic activity49.

The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruit juice by intraperitoneal administration to mice (1 g/kg) in the test of alloxan-induced diabetes was less effective and shorter than chlorpropamide and metformin50.

The leaf decoction administered orally to rats (10 mL/kg) significantly decreased intestinal motility51.

The leaf in 500 mg tablets (standardization of flavonoids, quercetin 1 mg/500 mg), administered orally (1 tablet every 8 hours during 3 days) to adult human patients with acute diarrheic disease significantly reduced the duration of abdominal pain in a randomized and double-blind clinical assay52.

The aqueous and methanolic extracts from the bark(45 mg/mL, 0.1 mL/plate)were active in vitro against Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andPseudomonas aeruginosa66.

The stem bark decoction was active in vitroagainst Entamoeba histolytica with CIM < 10 µg/mL. The same extract, at a concentration of 80 µg/mL in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig ileum67.

References:  

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.