cuts, bounds

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • aloe

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • aloe

Guadeloupe:

  • lalwé

Puerto Rico:

  • sábila

Venezuela:

  • sábila
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fresh pulp, applied locally2,67,70

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for asthma, colds, baldness, cuts, bounds and skin rashes is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented inthe TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and published scientific information.

Due to the health risks related to asthma, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this plant remedy should be considered complementary to medical treatment.  There is no available information about its use for asthmatic crisis.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for oral administration to  pregnant or lactating women or to children under 5 years of age.  The use of this resource should be avoided in cases of diabetes mellitus.

The gel can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  It should not be used if it has turned a reddish color.

When cutting out the gelatinous part of the leaf, avoid contact with the yellow juice.  This juice can cause reactions of skin hypersensitivity or, if swallowed, it can have laxative effects.

Use for asthma or colds:

Peal the leaf and blend 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of the “crystal” (gel, pulp, mesophyll) with 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-30 grams of gel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of gel, cover, and let cool.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For baldness, cuts, bounds and skin rashes:

Wash and peal the leaf, cut 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of gel and apply to affected area of skin or scalp, twice a day.

1 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

2 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

7 MEDLINE PLUS 2009
Aloe (Aloe vera L.) U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. URL: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-aloe.html

8 GRUENWALD J, BRENDLER T, JAENICKE C, 2004
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 988pp.

9 DUKE’S PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASES 2009
www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

10 HOLDSWORTH DK, 1971
Chromones in Aloe species. Part I. Aloesin-A C-glucosyl-7-hydroxychromone. Planta Med 19:322-325.

11 MARY NY, CHRISTENSEN BV, BEAL JL, 1956
A paper chromatographic study of Aloe, aloin and cascara sagrada. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 45:229-232.

12 PASZKIEWICZ-GADEK A, CHLABICZ J, GALASINSKI W, 1988
The influence of selected potential oncostatics of plant origin on the protein biosynthesis in vitro. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 40(2):183-190.

13 RAUWALD H, 1987
New hydroxyaloins: the periodate-positive substance from cape aloes and cinnamoyl esters from Curacao aloes. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 9(4):215.

14 ZWAVING JH, ELEMA ET, 1976
A comparative investigation of two methods for the determination of 1,8-dihydroxyanthracene derivatives in vegetable drugs. Pharm Weekb (Sci Ed) 111:1315.

15 WALLER GR, MANGIAFICO S, RITCHEY CR, 1978
A chemical investigation of Aloe barbadensis. Proc Okla Acad Sci 58:69.

16 WALLER GR, MANGIAFICO S, RITCHEY CR, CUMBERLAND CD, 1978
Natural products from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Lloydia 41:648A.

17 SUGA T, HIRATA T, 1983
The efficacy of the Aloe plants chemical constituents and biological activities. Cosmet Toiletries 98(6):105-108.

18 GUARDARRAMA I, HERNÁNDEZ M, DÍAZ-ACOSTA A, CARBALLO A, 1993
Observaciones clínicas sobre el efecto del Aloe barbadensis L. en el tratamiento de pacientes asmáticos. Estudio preliminar. Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas, Santa Clara, Cuba.

19 GUARDARRAMA I, TORRES O, HERNÁNDEZ M, RUIZ MM, GÓMEZ M, CLAVO Y, 1994
Prueba de hiperreactividad bronquial a la carbacolina en pacientes asmáticos tratados con Aloe barbadensis. Medicentro 10(1):93-101.

20 MARTÍNEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, ALONSO N, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antimicrobiana de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Aloe vera (sábila). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(3):18-20.

21 HEGGERS JP, PINELESS GR, ROBSON MC, 1979
Dermaide Aloe/Aloe vera gel: Comparison of the antimicrobial effects. J Amer Med Technol 41:293-294.

22 GOTTSHALL RY, LUCAS E, LICKFELDT A, ROBERTS J, 1949
The occurrence of antibacterial substances active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in seed plants. J Clin Invest 28:920-923.

23 LORENZETTI LJ, SALISBURY R, BEAL JL, BALDWIN JN, 1964
Bacteriostatic property of Aloe vera. J Pharm Sci 53:1287.

24 MOHSIN A, SHAH AH, AL-YAHYA MA, TARIQ M, TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, 1989
Analgesic antipyretic activity and phytochemical screening of some plants used in traditional Arab system of medicine. Fitoterapia 60(2):174-177.

25 FURONES JA, MORÓN FJ, PINEDO Z, 1996
Acción analgésica de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Aloe vera L. en ratones. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):15-17.

26 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, BYRNE ME, 1989
Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 79(11):559-562.

27 YAGI A, SHIDA T, NISHIMURA H, 1987
Effect of amino acids in Aloe extract on phagocytosis by peripheral neutrophil in adult bronchial asthma. Jap J Allergol 36(12):1094-1101.

28 ATHERTON P, 1998
First aid plant. Chem Brit 34(5):33-36.

29 NAKAYAMA T, 1993
Hair cosmetics containing Aloe extract. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-05 331,024:3. Chemical Abstracts 12191297H.

30 EL ZAWAHRY M, HEGAZY MR, HELAL M, 1973
Use of Aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. Int J Dermatol 12:68-73.

31 KAVOUSSI H, KAVOUSSI HP, 1993
Saturated solution of purified sodium chloride in purified Aloe vera for inducing and stimulating hair growth and for decreasing hair loss. Patent - USA: 5,215,760.

32 BUNYAPRAPHATSARA N, JIRAKULCAIWONG S, THIRAWARAPAN S, MANONUKUL J, 1996
The efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of first, second and third degree burns in mice. Phytomedicine 2(3):247-251.

33 ROWE TD, LOVELL BK, PARKS LM, 1941
Further observations on the use of Aloe vera leaf in the treatment of third degree X-ray reactions. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 30:266-269.

34 SAMBOONWONG J, THANAMITTRAMANEE S, JARIYAPONGSKUL A, PATUMRAJ S, 2000
Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats. J of the Medical Association of Thailand 83(4):417-425.

35 DAVIS RH, DONATO J, HARTMAN G, HAAS R, 1994
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 84(2):77-81.

36 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, 1987
Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera as measured by ear swelling. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 77(11):610-612.

37 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, 1988
Aloe vera. A natural approach for treating wounds, edema and pain in diabetes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 78(2):60-68.

38 DAVIS RH, KABBANI JM, MARO NP, 1987
Aloe vera and wound healing. J Amer Podiatr Med Ass 77(4):165-169.

39 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, BYRNE ME, 1989
Anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera against a spectrum of irritants. J Amer Podiatr Med Ass 79(6):263-276.

40 DAVIS RH, AGNEW PS, SHAPIRO E, 1986
Antiarthritic activity of anthraquinones found in Aloe for podiatric medicine. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 76:61-66.

41 STRICKLAND FM, PELLEY RP, KRIPKE ML, 1994
Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity by Aloe barbadensis gel extracts. J Invest Dermatol 102(2):197-204.

42 LEE CK, HAN SS, MO YK, KIM RS, CHUNG MH, PARK YI, LEE SK, KIM YS, 1997
Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel component. Immunopharmacology 37(2/3):153-162.

43 RODRÍGUEZ-BIGAS M, CRUZ NI, SUÁREZ A, 1988
Comparative evaluation of Aloe vera in the management of burn wounds in guinea pigs. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:386-389.

44 KIVETT WF, 1989
Aloe vera for burns. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 83:195.

45 DAVIS RH, DI DONATO JJ, JOHNSON RW, STEWART CB, 1994
Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 84(12):614-621.

46 LUSHBAUGH CC, HALE DB, 1953
Experimental acute radiodermatitis following beta irradiation. V. Histopathological study of the mode of action of therapy with Aloe vera. Cancer 6:690-698.

47 ROVATTI B, BRENNAN RJ, 1959
Experimental thermal burns. Induct Med Surg 28:364.

48 NORTHWAY RB, 1975
Experimental use of Aloe vera extract in clinical practice. Vet Med Small Animal Clinic 70:89.

49 COBBLE HH, 1975
Stabilized Aloe vera gel. Patent - USA: 3,892,853.

50 FULTON JE, 1990
The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized Aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 16(5):460-467.

51 DAVIS RH, KABBANI JM, MARO NP, 1986
Wound healing and antiinflammatory activity of Aloe vera. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences 60:79.

52 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, MARO NP, 1987
Biological activity of Aloe vera. Med Sci Res 15:235.

53 LANG L, FEAKINS RM, GOLDTHORPE S, HOLT H, TSIRONI E, DE SILVA A, JEWELL DP, RAMPTON DS, 2004
Randomized, bouble-blind, placebo-controlled triall of oral Aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 19(7):739-747.

54 THOMPSON JE, 1991
Topical use of Aloe vera derived Allantoin gel in otolaryngology. Ear Nose Throat J 70(2):119.

55 LEÓN JE, ROSALES V, ROSALES RA, PAVÓN V, 1999
Actividad antiinflamatoria y cicatrizante del ungüento rectal de Aloe vera L (sábila). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 4(3):106-109.

56 SARABIA JEL, CLARES VPR, CLARES RAR, HERNÁNDEZ VP, 1999
Actividad antiinflamatoria y cicatrizante del unguento rectal de Aloe vera L. (Sabila) Rev Cubana Plant Med 3(3):106-109.

57 VISUTHIKOSOL V, CHOWCHUEN B, SUKWANARAT Y, SRIURAIRATANA S, BOONPUCKNAVIG V, 1995
Effect of Aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 78(8):403-409.

58 CREWE JE, 1939
Aloes in the treatment of burns and scalds. Minnesota Med 22:538-539.

59 HORMANN HP, KORTING HC, 1994
Evidence for the efficacy and safety of topical herbal drugs in dermatology: Part I: Anti-inflammatory agents. Phytomedicine 1(2):161-171.

60 LEUNG AY, 1977 
Aloe vera in cosmetics. Drug Cosmet Ind 120:34.

61 BERNHARD JD, 1988
Aloe vera and vitamin E as dermatologic remedies. J Amer Med Ass 259(1):101.

62 COLLINS CE, COLLINS C, 1935
Roentgen dermatitis treated with fresh whole leaf of Aloe vera. Amer J Roentgen 33:396.

63 LOVEMAN AB, 1937
Leaf of Aloe vera in treatment of roentgen ray ulcers: report on two additional cases. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 36:838.

64 WRIGHT CS, 1936
Aloe vera in the treatment of roentgen ulcers and telangiectasis. J Amer Med Ass 106:1363-1364.

65 BARNES TC, 1947
The healing action of extracts of Aloe vera leaf on abrasions of human skin. Amer J Bot 34:597.

66 KESTEN B, MC LAUGHLIN R, 1936
Roentgen ray dermatitis treated with ointment containing viosterol. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 34:901-903.

67 MARET RH, COBBLE HR, 1975
Extracts of Aloe vera. Patent-US-3,878,197. Chemical Abstracts 8348187G.

68 MAENTHAISONG R, CHAIYAKUNAPRUK N, NIRUNTRAPORN S, KONGKAEW C, 2007
The efficacy of Aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review. Burns 33(6):713-718.

69 DAVIS RH, 1996
Aloe plant for promotion of wound healing. Patent-US-5,487,899:11. Chemical Abstracts 124270551V.

70 SCHULMAN JM, 1996
Medicated gels for healing aphthous ulcers. Patent-US-5,503,822:3. Chemical Abstracts 124298476Y.

71 LERNER FN, 1987
Investigation of effects of proteolytics enzymes, Aloe gel, and iontophoresis on chronic and acute athletic injuries. Chiropractic Sports Med 1(3):106-110.

72 VERMA SBS, SCHULZE HJ, STEIGLEDER GK, 1989
The effect of externally applied remedies containing Aloe vera gel on the proliferation of epidermis. Parfumerie Und Kometik 70(8):452-459.

73 SAYED MD, 1980
Traditional medicine in health care. J Ethnopharmacol 2(1):19-22.

74 DOMÍNGUEZ-SOTO L, 1992
Photodermatitis to Aloe vera. Int J Dermatol 31(5):372.

75 SYED T, AHMAD S, HOLT A, AHMAD S, AHMAD S, AFZAL M, 1996
Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health 1(4):505-509.

76 COUTTS BC, 1979
Stabilized Aloe vera gel. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-79 119,018:6. Chemical Abstracts 9299563V.

77 RAMOS A, EDREIRA AYMEE, VILLESCUSA A, VIZOZO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, 1996
Evaluación genotóxica de un extracto acuoso de Aloe vera L. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(2):18-23.

78 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCÍA A, PILOTO J, PAVÓN V, 2000
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo del extracto fluido de Cassia grandis L y el gel de Aloe vera L. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 5(3):91-96.

79 SETHI N, NATH D, SING R, 1989
Teratological evaluation of some commonly used indigenous antifertility plants in rats. Int J Crude Drug Res 27(2):118-120.

80 GOSWAMI CS, BOKADIA MM, 1979
The effect of extracts of Aloe barbadensis leaves on the fertility of female rats. Indian Drugs 16:124-125.

81 IKENO Y, HUBBARD GB, LEE S, YU BP, HERLIHY JT, 2002
The influence of long-term Aloe vera ingestion on age-related disease in male Fischer 344 rats. Phytother Res 16(8):712-718.

82 YOKEL R, OGZEWALLA C, 1981
Effects of plants ingestion in rats determined by the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Toxicon 19(2):223-232.

83 PRAKASH A, MATHUR R, 1976
Screening of Indian plant for antifertility activity. Indian J Exp Biol 14:623-626.

84 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

85 SHAH AH, QURESHI S, TARIQU M, AGEEL AM, 1989
Toxicity studies on six plants used in the traditional Arab system of medicine. Phytother Res 3(1):25-29.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

French Guiana:

  • citron
  • citron vert

Panama:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Venezuela:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Colombia:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Puerto Rico:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Honduras:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • lime

Dominica:

  • lime

Dominican Republic:

  • limón, limón agrio, lima

Martinique:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Guadeloupe:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi
  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè

Saint Martin:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Haiti:

  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, application36,44

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

4 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

5 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

8 HAY YO, 1998
Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

9 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

10 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

11 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

12 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

13 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

18 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

19 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press. p45.

20 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986
Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

21 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOZA A, VASQUEZ Y, GUPTA MP, 2005Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. var. mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

24 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

25 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

26 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

27 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

28 ADESINA S, 1982
Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

29 GUPTA M, 1987
Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México: Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

31 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

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