sapito (mouth candidiasis)

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • cebollín

Haiti:

  • zechalot
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  bulb, macerated in water, applied locally 2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for pneumonia is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the respiratorydisorder last more than 5 days or 3 days in case of fever, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Use for sapito (thrush) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The bulb of Allium cepa var. aggregatumis widely used for human consumption.

For pneumopathy:

Grind, mash and squeeze one to two bulbs in a cloth.  Mix 15 to 30 mL (1-2 spoons) of juice with honey.  Drink before breakfast once a day for 3 weeks.

For sapito (mouth candidiasis = thrush):

Apply drops of the fresh bulb juice directly on affected area.

1 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

4 AUGUST KT, 1996
Therapeutic values of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.). Indian J of Experimental Biology 34(7):634-640.

5 BLOCK E, NAGANATHAN S, PUTMAN D, ZHAO SH, 1992
Allium chemistry: hplc analysis of thiosulfinates from onion, garlic, wild garlic (ramsoms), leek, scallion, shallot, elephant (great-headed) garlic, chive, and Chinese chive. Uniquely high allyl to methyl ratios in some garlic samples. J Agr Food Chem 40(12):2418-2430.

6 WU JB, CHENG YD, HUANG SC, CHANG KH, HSIEH MT, 1992
Quantitative determination of active compounds in Allium genus (Liliaceae) by hplc. China Med Coll J 1(2):123-128.

7 TOKITOMO Y, KOBAYASHI A, 1992
Isolation of the volatile components of fresh onion by thermal desorption cold trap capillary gas chromatography. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56(11):1865-1866.

8 DONNER H, GAO L, MAZZA G, 1997
Separation and characterization of simple and malonylated anthocyanins in red onions, Allium cepa L. Food Res Int 30(8):637-643.

9 FULEKI T, 1969
The anthocyanins of strawberry, rhubarb, radish and onion. J Food Sci 34(4):365-369.

10 PATIL BS, PIKE LM, YOO KS, 1995
Variation in the quercetin content in different colored onions (Allium cepa L.). J Amer Soc Hort Sci 120(6):909-913.

11 SHAMS-GHAHFAROKHI M, SHOKOOHAMIRI MR, AMIRRAJAB N, MOGHADASI B, GHAJARI A, ZEINI F, SADEGHI G, RAZZAGHI-ABYANEH M, 2006
In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes. Fitoterapia 77:321–323.

12 SRINIVASAN D, NATHAN S, SURESH T, PERUMALSAMY PL, 2001
Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 74(3):217-220.

13 SHARMA KC, SHANMUGASUNDRAM SSK, 1979
Allium cepa as an antiasthmatic. RRL Jammu Newsletter 6(2):8.

14 DORSCH W, ETTL M, HEIN G, SCHEFTNER P, WEBER J, BAYER T, WAGNER H, 1987
Antiasthmatic effects of onion. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction by onion oils. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82(3/4):535-536.

15 DORSCH W, ADAM O, WEBER J, ZIEGELTRUM T, 1985
Antiasthmatic effects of onion extracts -detection of benzyl- and other isothiocyanates (mustard oil) as antiasthmatic compounds of plant origin. Eur J Pharmacol 107(1):17-24.

16 DORSCH W, WAGNER H, 1991
New antiasthmatic drugs from traditional medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94(1/2):262-265.

17 ROCKWELL P, RAW I, 1979
A mutagenic screening of various herbs spices and food additives. Nutrition and Cancer 1(4):10-16.

18 MAHMOUD II, ALKOFANI AS, ABDELAZIZ AA, 1992
Mutagenic and toxic activities of several spices and some Jordanian medicinal plants. Int J Pharmacog 30(2):81-85. 

19 THOMSON M, ALNAQEEB MA, BORDIA T, AL-HASSAN JM, AFZAL M, ALI M, 1998
Effects of aqueous extract of onion on the liver and lung of rats. J Ethnopharmacol 61(2):91-99.

20 VERHOEFF J, HAJER R, VAN DEN INGH TS, 1985
Onion poisoning of young cattle. Vet Rec 117(19):497-498.

21 BEATTY ER, O'REILLY JD, ENGLAND TG, MCANLIS GT, YOUNG IS, GEISSLER CA, SANDERS TA, WISEMAN H, 2000
Effect of dietary quercetin on oxidative DNA damage in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 84(6):919-925.

22 GRUENWALD J, BRENDLER T, JAENICKE C, 2004
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 988pp.

23 VALDIVIESO R, SUBIZA J, VARELA-LOSADA S, SUBIZA JL, NARGANES MJ, MARTINEZ-COCERA C, CABRERA M, 1994
Bronchial asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact dermatitis caused by onion. J of Allergy Clin Immunol 94(5):928-930.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • medsiyen

Dominican Republic:

  • piñón, piñón botija
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  sap (latex), applied locally1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for mouth candidiasis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Repeated contact with the latex of many Euphorbiaceae results in allergy and in some cases with co-carcinogenicity.

Do not ingest the seed due to toxicity risk.  In the event of poisoning from ingestion, seek medical attention.

For mouth candidiasis:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Do not use repeatedly. Repeated contact with the latex of many Euphorbiaceae results in allergy and in some cases with co-carcinogenicity.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL, Zambrana, Cotui. Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

7 VAN DEN BERG A, HOARSTEN S, KETTENES-VAN-DEN BOSCH J, KROES B, BEUKELMAN C, LEEFLANG B, LABADIE R, 1995
Curcacycline A - a novel cyclic octapeptide isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L. Febs Lett 358(3):215-218.

8 NATH LK, DUTTA SK, 1991
Extraction and purification of curcain, a protease from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn. J Pharm Pharmacol 43(2):111-114.

9 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel & Stuttgart: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

10 SUBRAMANIAN SS, NAGARAJAN S, SULOCHANA N, 1971
Flavonoids from some Euphorbiaceous plants. Phytochemistry 10:2548-2549.

11 HUFFORDCD, OGUNTIMEIN BO, 1978
Non-polar constituents of Jatropha curcas. Lloydia 41(2):161-165.

12 HUSSAIN H, DEENI Y, 1991
Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

13 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986
Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Pays-Bas.

14 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, GUPTA MP, 2005
Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

16 GARCIA-GONZALEZ M, FERNANDEZ A. ARGUEDAS R, MONTERO S, 2005
Efecto antiinflamatorio en ratones, en aplicación tópica, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Jatropha curcas dosis única. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

17 THOMASO O, 1989
Re-examination of the antimicrobial activities of Xylopia aethiopica, Carica papaya, Ocimun gratissimum and Jatropha curcas. Fitoterapia 60(2):147-155.

18 MARROQUIN E, Blanco JA, GRANADO S, CACERES A, MORALES C, 1997
Clinical Trial of Jatropha curcas sap in the treatment of common warts. Fitoterapia 68(2):160-162.

19 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca de Jatropha curcas L. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

21 WEE Y, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • tomat

Guatemala:

  • tomate

Dominican Republic:

  • tomate
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  green fruit and leaf, rubbed in mouth1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for candidiasis (thrush) in mouth, toothache and burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Traditional use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The leaf should be properly washed and cleaned, and its external indumentum (the covering of hairs on the leaf) should be removed, as it may cause dermatomucosal irritation and reactions of hypersensitivity.

The ripe fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum is widely used for human consumption.

For candidiasis in the mouth and toothache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For burns:

Wash injury with cooled boiled water and soap, apply 8-10 grams of leaf, previously washed, on the affected area.  Cover the injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace every 12 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA PJ, 1996
Biologically active natural products. Annual proceedings of the phytochemical society of Europe. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

5 CATALDI TR, LELARIO F, BUFO SA, 2005
Analysis of tomato glycoalkaloids by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19(21):3103-3110.

6 SCHREIBER K, AURICH O, 1966
Isolation of several alkaloids and 3-beta-hydroxy-5-alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one from Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill. Phytochemistry 5:707-712.

7 YAHARA S, UDA N, NOHARA T, 1996
Lycoperosides A-C, three stereoisomeric 23-acetoxyspirosolan-3-beta-ol beta-lycotetraosides from Lycopersicon esculentum. Phytochemistry 42(1):169-172.

8 DENG C, ZHANG X, ZHU W, QIAN J, 2004
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase microextraction method for determination of methyl salicylate and other volatile compounds in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum. Anal Bioanal Chem 378(2):518-522.

9 ANTONIOUS GF, 2001
Production and quantification of methyl ketones in wild tomato accessions. J Environ Sci Health B 36(6):835-848.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p102.

11 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de las hojas frescas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

12 ANON, 1987
Pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions containing tomato plant extracts for the treatment of skin diseases. Patent-Israëli 78,820.

13 CAVALIN G, 1983
Tomate et tomatine (Thèse Doctorat Pharmacie). Toulouse, France.

14 PAZOS L, COTO T, 2011
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada y piel sana, porción de hojas frescas de Lycopersicon esculentum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

15 ASWAL B, BHAKUNI D, GOEL A, KAR K, MAHROTRA B, MUKHERJEE K, 1984
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

16 DUKE JA, 1988
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 CONTRERAS A, ZOLLA C, 1982
Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.