sorethroat

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • brusca

Dominica:

  • café moucha

Guatemala:

  • frijolillo

Honduras:

  • frijolillo

Haiti:

  • terrier rouge
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

root and leaf, chewed5

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

Use for "bad blood" is part of the cultural tradition of our communities.  It has not been listed in the TRAMIL classification.

According to published and other information:

Use of the leaf for skin conditions, headache, body ache, sorethroat, fever and jaundice, and use of the seed for sore and tinea are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use of the leaf for stomach pain, of the seed for body ache and of the root for stomach pain, sorethroat and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, jaundice or stomach pain for more than 3 days, or skin conditions for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Thoroughly wash 30–50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets), mash and apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

For stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15 grams of leaf (7-10 leaflets) and 15 grams of root in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day36.

For headache, fever, jaundice, sorethroat and body ache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977
Anthraquinone pigments from Cassia occidentalis. Planta Med Suppl 32(4):375-377.

7 RAI PP, SHOK M, 1983
Anthraquinone glycosides from plant parts of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J Pharm Sci 45(2):87-88.

8 ANTON R, DUQUENOIS P, 1968
Contribution à l'étude chimique du Cassia occidentalis L. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 26(2):673-680.

9 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977
Flavonoids from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 16(7):1107-1108.

10 MAJUMDAR SG, BASAK B, LASKAR S, 1987
Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of some Cassia species. J Indian Chem Soc 64(4):259-260.

11 ALVES AC, 1964
Pharmacological study of the root of Cassia occidentalis. An Fac Farm Porto 24:65-119.

12 WADER GR, KUDAV NA, 1987
Chemical investigation of Cassia occidentalis Linn. with special reference to isolation of xanthones from Cassia spp. Indian J of Chemisitry 26(B7):703.

13 KUDAV NA, KULKARNI A,B 1974
Chemical investigation on Cassia occidentalis. II. Isolation of islandicin, helminthosporine, xanthonin and NMR spectral studies of cassiollin and its derivatives. Indian J Chem 12:1042-1044.

14 LAL-JAWAHAR, GUPTA-PURAN-CHANDRA, 1973
Physcion and phytosterol from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 12(5):1186.

15 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, OCAMPO R, PAZOS L, 2001
Tránsito intestinal en ratones, con extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995
Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

18 PEREZ C, SUAREZ C, 1997
Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Candida albicans. Amer J Chinese Med 25(2):181-184.

19 HUSSAIN HS, DEENI YY, 1991
Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

20 SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN G, ROJAS DE ARIAS A, 1992
A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother Res 6(2):68-73.

21 TONA L, NGIMBI NP, TSAKALA M, MESIA K, CIMANGA K, ASPERS S, DE BRUYNE T, PIETERS L, TOTTE J, VLIETINCK AJ, 1999
Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1/3):193-203.

22 SADIQUE J, CHANDRA T, THENMOZHI V, ELANGO V, 1987
Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19(2):201-212.

23 SARAF S, DIXIT VK, TRIPATHI SC, PATNAIK GK, 1994
Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int J Pharmacog 32(2):178-183.

24 JAFRI MA, JALIS SUBHANI M, JAVED K, SINGH S, 1999
Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66(3):355-361.

25 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HS, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

26 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L. y Cassia occidentalis L. en conejo y cobayo. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. 

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de semillas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 O'HARA P, PIERCE K, 1974
A toxic cardiomyopathy caused by Cassia occidentalis. II Biochemical studies in poisoned rabbits. Vet Pathol 11(2):110-124.

33 COLVIN BM, HARRISON LR, SANGSTER LT, GOSSER HS, 1986
Cassia occidentalis toxicosis in growing pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(4):423-426.

34 MARTINS E, MARTINS VM, RIET F, SONCINI RA, PARABONI SV, 1986
Intoxicação por Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae) em suínos. Pesq Vet Bras 6(2):35-38.

35 BARTH AT, KOMMERS GO, SALLES MS, WOUTERS F, DE BARROS CS, 1994
Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(6):541-545.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p174.