cutaneous ulcers

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • rompezaragüey
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, dried in fire (faded), applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

External use for furuncles and skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should furuncles or skin ulcer last for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For furuncles and skin ulcer:

Wash the affected area with boiled water and soap.  Wash leaf thoroughly, warm it slightly over a fire, take 5-10 grams of this vegetal material and apply topically either directly or mixed with animal fat.  Cover with a pad or with clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 BOSE P, CHAKRABARTI D, CHAKRAVARTI S, DUTTA S, BARVA A, 1973
Flavonoids constituents of Eupatorium odoratum. Phytochemistry 12(3):667-668.

3 ARENE E, PETTIT G, ODE R, 1978
The isolation of isosakuranetin methyl ether from Eupatorium odoratum. Lloydia 41:68-70.

4 FARNSWORTH N, CORDELL GA, KAAS CJ, 1980
What is odoratin?. J Pharm Sci 69(9):1107.

5 METWALLY A, EKEJIUBA E, 1981
Methoxylated flavonols and flavanones from Eupatorium odoratum. Planta Med 42:403-405.

6 HAI M, SAHA K, AHMAD M, 1995
Chemical constituents of Eupatorium odoratum Linn (Compositae). J Bangladesh Chem Soc 8(2):139-142.

7 AHMAD M, NABI M, 1967
Chemical investigations on the leaves of Eupatorium odoratum. Sci Res 4:154-157.

8 TALAPATRA SK, BHAR DS, TALAPATRA B, 1977
Terpenoids and related compounds: Part XIII. Epoxylupeol, a new triterpenoid from Eupatorium odoratum. Indian J Chem 15B(9):806-807.

9 IWU M, CHIORI C, 1984
Antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium odoratum extracts. Fitoterapia 55(6)354-356.

10 BOSE P, CHAKRABARTI P, CHAKRAVARTI S, DUTTA SP, BARUA AK, 1974
Chemical examination of the leaves of Eupatorium odoratum. Trans Bose Res Inst Calcutta 37(1-2):25-30.

11 INYA-AGHA S, OGUNTIMEIN B, SOFOWORA A, BENJAMIN T, 1987
Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on the essential oil of Eupatorium odoratum. Int J Crude Drug Res 25(1):49-52.

12 NWOKOLO E, 1987
Leaf meals of Siam weed Eupatorium odoratum L. as nutrient source in poultry diet. Nutr Rep Int 36(4):819-826.

13 JOYEUX M, FLEURENTIN J, DORFMAN P, MONTIER F, 1988
Recherche d'une activité hépatotrope et antiradicalaire de plantes médicinales de la caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Centre des Sciences pour l'Environnement, Metz, France.

14 FIALLO M, VAZQUEZ TINEO M, 1992
Evaluación in vitro de plantas usadas en afecciones de la piel: Extractos vegetales antimicóticos y antimicrobianos. Informe TRAMIL. CIBIMA, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma UASD, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

15 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986
Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Pays-Bas.

16 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

17 PHAN TT, HUGHES MA, CHERRY GW, 1998
Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with an extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (Eupolin), an herbal remedy for treating wounds. Plastic and reconstructive surgery 101(3):756-765.

18 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

19 MARTÍNEZ MJ, LÓPEZ M, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda tópica hojas frescas calentadas de Eupatorium odoratum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

20 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HSA, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

21 BHAKUNI O, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7(4):250-262.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Mexico:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Guatemala:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Honduras:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Dominican Republic:

  • apazote, epazote

Haiti:

  • feuilles à vers
  • simen-kontra

Martinique:

  • herbe à vers
  • simen-kontra
  • zèb avè

Colombia:

  • paico
  • yerba santa

Panama:

  • paico

Venezuela:

  • pazote

Guadeloupe:

  • simen-kontra

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • worm grass

Dominica:

  • wormweed
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  aerial parts, crushed, applied locally4

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites, is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In no case should the specified manner of preparation and dosage be altered.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, or more than 2 days in children over 5 years old, medical attention should be sought.

For diarrhea, this resource is considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites is recommended only when disorder is caused by ascaris, pinworms and hookworms; not for other types of diarrhoea, stomach pain or other intestinal parasites.

Use is contraindicated in individuals with hepatic disorders, renal insufficiency14, weakened individuals and the elderly.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, as it may be abortifacient, or during breast feeding or by children under 5 years old.

Use for skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and skin toxicity assays.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the skin ulcer last more than 5 days, medical attention should be sought for.

In topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For intestinal parasites, diarrhea and stomach pain caused by parasites:

prepare a decoction or infusion with 7 grams of aerial parts (leaf, flower, stem) in 300 mL (more than 1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 7 grams of aerial parts, cover and leave to cool down during 10 minutes.  Strain and drink 1 cup (250 mL) for adults, 1/2 cup (125 mL) for people weighing 35 kg, and 1/3 cup (80 mL) for children over 5 years.  Drink once a day only for 3 consecutive days46 and do not repeat treatment within six months.

Taking a saline laxative is recommended (e.g. magnesium sulfate) after the last intake; however, no oily purgatives should be taken14.

For skin ulcer:

Wash the injury with purified water and soap.  Wash the aerial plant parts properly, press or crush, and apply to affected area.  Cover with a clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

6 MÉNDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURÁN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 SOTOMAYOR U, RUEDA R, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro nacional de la medicina popular tradicional CNMPT, Ministerio de Salud, Estelí, Nicaragua.

11 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Ngöbe-Buglé). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GÓMEZ H, GAITAN R, DÍAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe. (FWI).

17 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

18 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PÉREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORÁLES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Quenopodio. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Barcelona, España, Editorial Masson. Nov.20,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

19 BOURGEOIS P, JOSEPH H, SAVARY H, 1989
Détermination d'huiles essentielles et dosage de l'ascaridole dans Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane UAG, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

20 TAKEMOTO T, NAKAJIMA T, 1957
Study of the essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides. V. On the structure of aritasone. Yakugaru Zasshi 77:1157-1158.

21 BAUER L, BRASIL E, SILVA GA, 1973
Essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Schinus terebenthifolia from Rio Grande do Sul. Rev Brasil Farm 54:240.

22 MONZOTE L, STAMBERG W, STANIEK K, GILLE L, 2009
Oxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 240(3):337-347.

23 CHU SS, FENG HU J, LIU ZL, 2011
Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Pest Manag Sci 67(6):714-718.

24 JARAMILLO B, DUARTE E, DELGADO W, 2012
Bioactividad del aceite esencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides colombiano/ Bioactivity of essential oil from Colombian Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rev Cuba Plantas Med 17(1):54-64.

25 JARDIM CM, JHAM GN, DHINGRA OD, FREIRE MM, 2008
Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of the Brazilian Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Chem Ecol 34(9):1213-1218.

26 ARISAWA M, MINABE N, SAEKI R, TAKAKUWA T, NAKAOKI T, 1971
Studies on unutilized resources. V. The components of the flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants. Yagugaku Zasshi 91:522.

27 JAIN N, LAM MS, KAMIL M, ILYAS M, NIWA M, SAKAE A, 1990
Two flavonol glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phytochemistry 29(12):3988-3991.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p41.

29 CAMBAR P, 1988
Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

30 DESTA B, 1993
Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 39(2):129-139.

31 ROSS SA, EL-KELTAWI NE, MEGALLA SE, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia 51:201-205.

32 BUTZ LN, LA LANDE JR, 1937
Antihelmintics II. A comparison of certain ozonides, Chenopodium oil and diheptanol peroxide. J Am Pharm Assoc 26:114.

33 BLISS AR, 1925
A pharmacodynamic study on the antihelmintic properties of two oils of Chenopodium. J Am Pharm Assoc 14:93.

34 FERNAN-NUÑEZ M, 1927
A contribution of helmintic therapy. J Amer Med Assoc 88:903.

35 FEROZ H, KHARE AK, SRIVASTAVA MC, 1982
Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants. J Sci Res Pl Med 3(1):6-12.

36 KISHORE N, DUBEY NK, SINGH SK, DIXIT SN, 1981
Fungitoxicity of some volatile natural products against human pathogenic fungi. Indian Perf 25(3/4):1-3.

37 KLIKS MM, 1985
Studies on the traditional herbal antihelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. Soc Sci Med 21(8):879-886.

38 LOPEZ DE GUIMARAES D, NEYRA LLANOS RS, ROMERO ACEVEDO JH, 2001
Ascariasis; comparación de la eficacia terapéutica entre paico y albendazol en niños de Huaraz. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 21(3):212-219.

39 GONZÁLEZ A, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de plantas TRAMIL en conejos. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

40 LÓPEZ M, MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de hoja fresca de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

41 LÓPEZ M, MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria hoja fresca machacada de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

42 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, partes aéreas de Chenopodium ambrosioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 GADANOA AB, GURNI AA, CARBALLO MA, 2006
Argentine folk medicine: Genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 103(2):246-251.

44 MACDONALD D, VANCREY K, HARRISON P, RANGACHARI PK, ROSENFELD J, WARREN C, SORGER G, 2004
Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle. J Ethnopharmacol 92(2-3):215-221.

45 OPDYKE DLJ, 1976
Monographs on fragance raw materials. Chenopodium oil. Food Chem Toxicol 14(11):713-715.

46 OLAJIDE OA, AWE SO, MAKINDE JM, 1997
Pharmalogical screening of the mathanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Fitoterapia 68(6):529-532.

47 BHAKUNI DS, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

48 MELE A, 1952
Acute poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med 35:955.

49 WOLF IJ, 1932
Fatal poisoning with oil of Chenopodium in a negro child with sickle-cell anemia. Arch Pediatr 52:126.

50 JELLIFFE DB, 1951
Oil of Chenopodium in the treatment of ascariasis. Report of 3 cases of fatal liver damage in African patients. J Trop Med Hyg 54:143.

51 ANDRIEN J, PARMENTIER PD, COMPERE J, BOUNAMEAUX Y, 1971
Study on Chenopodium oil encephalitis. Three fatal cases. A Soc Belge Med Trop 51:299.

52 CONTRERAS AA, ZOLLA C, 1982
Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

53 DELENS M, Ed., 2000
Cuaderno de Fitoterapia Clínica (Afecciones respiratorias y digestivas). Mérida, Venezuela: CONAPLAMED. p151.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Mexico:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Guatemala:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Honduras:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Dominican Republic:

  • apazote, epazote

Haiti:

  • feuilles à vers
  • simen-kontra

Martinique:

  • herbe à vers
  • simen-kontra
  • zèb avè

Colombia:

  • paico
  • yerba santa

Panama:

  • paico

Venezuela:

  • pazote

Guadeloupe:

  • simen-kontra

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • worm grass

Dominica:

  • wormweed
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  aerial parts, crushed, applied locally4

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites, is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In no case should the specified manner of preparation and dosage be altered.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, or more than 2 days in children over 5 years old, medical attention should be sought.

For diarrhea, this resource is considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites is recommended only when disorder is caused by ascaris, pinworms and hookworms; not for other types of diarrhoea, stomach pain or other intestinal parasites.

Use is contraindicated in individuals with hepatic disorders, renal insufficiency14, weakened individuals and the elderly.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, as it may be abortifacient, or during breast feeding or by children under 5 years old.

Use for skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and skin toxicity assays.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the skin ulcer last more than 5 days, medical attention should be sought for.

In topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For intestinal parasites, diarrhea and stomach pain caused by parasites:

prepare a decoction or infusion with 7 grams of aerial parts (leaf, flower, stem) in 300 mL (more than 1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 7 grams of aerial parts, cover and leave to cool down during 10 minutes.  Strain and drink 1 cup (250 mL) for adults, 1/2 cup (125 mL) for people weighing 35 kg, and 1/3 cup (80 mL) for children over 5 years.  Drink once a day only for 3 consecutive days46 and do not repeat treatment within six months.

Taking a saline laxative is recommended (e.g. magnesium sulfate) after the last intake; however, no oily purgatives should be taken14.

For skin ulcer:

Wash the injury with purified water and soap.  Wash the aerial plant parts properly, press or crush, and apply to affected area.  Cover with a clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

6 MÉNDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURÁN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 SOTOMAYOR U, RUEDA R, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro nacional de la medicina popular tradicional CNMPT, Ministerio de Salud, Estelí, Nicaragua.

11 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Ngöbe-Buglé). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GÓMEZ H, GAITAN R, DÍAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe. (FWI).

17 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

18 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PÉREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORÁLES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Quenopodio. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Barcelona, España, Editorial Masson. Nov.20,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

19 BOURGEOIS P, JOSEPH H, SAVARY H, 1989
Détermination d'huiles essentielles et dosage de l'ascaridole dans Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane UAG, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

20 TAKEMOTO T, NAKAJIMA T, 1957
Study of the essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides. V. On the structure of aritasone. Yakugaru Zasshi 77:1157-1158.

21 BAUER L, BRASIL E, SILVA GA, 1973
Essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Schinus terebenthifolia from Rio Grande do Sul. Rev Brasil Farm 54:240.

22 MONZOTE L, STAMBERG W, STANIEK K, GILLE L, 2009
Oxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 240(3):337-347.

23 CHU SS, FENG HU J, LIU ZL, 2011
Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Pest Manag Sci 67(6):714-718.

24 JARAMILLO B, DUARTE E, DELGADO W, 2012
Bioactividad del aceite esencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides colombiano/ Bioactivity of essential oil from Colombian Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rev Cuba Plantas Med 17(1):54-64.

25 JARDIM CM, JHAM GN, DHINGRA OD, FREIRE MM, 2008
Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of the Brazilian Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Chem Ecol 34(9):1213-1218.

26 ARISAWA M, MINABE N, SAEKI R, TAKAKUWA T, NAKAOKI T, 1971
Studies on unutilized resources. V. The components of the flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants. Yagugaku Zasshi 91:522.

27 JAIN N, LAM MS, KAMIL M, ILYAS M, NIWA M, SAKAE A, 1990
Two flavonol glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phytochemistry 29(12):3988-3991.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p41.

29 CAMBAR P, 1988
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