skin conditions

  leaf, crushed, in baths and rubbed on the skin1

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • ail
  • lay

Dominican Republic:

  • ajo

Guatemala:

  • ajo

Barbados:

  • garlic

Haiti:

  • lay

Saint Lucia:

  • lay
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bulb crushed, added to bath or rubbed on skin1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

Use for “bad blood” is a traditional cultural use of our communities and is not classified in the TRAMIL Program.

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence, and intestinal parasites is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and published scientific information.

Use for toothaches, earaches, and fever is classified as REC, based on significant traditional uses (OMS/WHO)7 documented by TRAMIL surveys.

The bulb can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum.  If the patient’s condition worsens or if the earache persists for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Contraindicated for use in hyperthyroidism8. The extracts from garlic interact with anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatments.

The bulb of Allium sativum is widely used for human consumption.

The garlic bulb for medicinal purposes should be taken together with meals, so as to prevent gastro-intestinal problems71.

For fever, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence and intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 2 to 5 grams of fresh garlic71 (1 to 2.5 cloves) or 2 to 4 grams of dried garlic71 in 1 cup of water (250 mL), boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For other forms of administration of garlic bulb, the daily consumption doses recommended by OMS71 are: for oil: 2 to 5 mg; for extracts, 300 to 1000 mg (as solid material).  Other type of pharmaceutical preparations should meet alliine values of 4-12 mg or allicine values of 2-5 mg71.

For treatment of skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, toothache, and earache:

2 to 5 g (1 to 2.5 cloves) of peeled fresh garlic; wash thoroughly and crush, then apply to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d’Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

6 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

7 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

8 NATURAL STANDARD, 2010
Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Foods, Herbs & Supplements. www.naturalstandard.com/monographs/herbssupplements/garlic. Last updated 5/17/2010.

9 GRUENWALD J, BRENDLER T, JAENICKE C, 2004
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 988pp.

10 BRINKER FND, 2001
Herb contraindications and drug interactions. 3° edition. Sandy, Oregon, USA: Eclectic Medical Publications.

11 ARTECHI A (Ed.), 1998
Fitoterapia Vademécum de prescripción de Plantas Medicinales. Barcelona, España: Masson. p63.

12 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas et farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. ISIS S.R.L. p208.

13 QUILEZ AM, GARCÍA D, SÁENZ T, 2009
Uso racional de medicamentos a base de plantas. Guía de interacciones entre fitomedicamentos et fármacos de síntesis. Sevilla, España: 1a Edición Fundación Farmacéutica Avenzoar.

14 MEDLINE PLUS, 2009
Ajo (Allium sativum L.). Biblioteca Nacional de Medecina de EE.UU et los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud. URL: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/patient-garlic.htm….

15 CAPORASO N, SMITH S, ENG R, 1983
Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic. Antimicob Agents Chemother 23(5):700-702.

16 PISCITELLI SC, BURSTEIN AH, WELDEN N, GALLICANO KD, FALLOON J, 2002
The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clinical infectious diseases 34(2):234-238.

17 GALLICANO K, FOSTER B, CHOUDHRI S, 2003
Effect of short-term administration of garlic supplements on single-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. British J of Clinical Pharmacology 55(2):199-202.

18 MARKOWITZ JS, DEVANE CL, CHAVIN KD, TAYLOR RM, RUAN Y, DONOVAN JL, 2003
Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 74(2):170-177.

19 AL-NAGDY SA, ABDEL-RAHMAN MO, HEIBA HI, 1988
Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 2:4196-4197.

20 ROLLERI F, 1943
Occurrence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in curative plants. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 281:118.

21 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p13.

22 DR. DUKE’S PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASES, 2009
www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

23 KOCH HP, JAGER W, GROH U, HOVIE JE, PLANK G, SEDLAK U, PRAZNIK W, 1993
Carbohydrates from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) as inhibitors of adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Phytother Res 7(5):387-389.

24 BAUMGARTNER S, DAX TG, PRAZNIK W, FALK H, 2000
Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Carbohydr Res 328(2):177-183.

25 RAKHIMBAEV IR, OL’SHANSKAYA RV, 1981
Preliminary identification of natural gibberellins of garlic. Izv Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr Ser Biol 2:17-22.

26 INAGAKI M, HARADA Y, YAMADA K, ISOBE R, HIGUCHI R, MATSUURA H, ITAKURA Y, 1998
Isolation and structure determination of cerebrosides from garlic, the bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 46(7):1153-1156.

27 SENDL A, ELBL G, STEINKE B, REDL K, BREU W, WAGNER H, 1992
Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 58(1):1-7.

28 MOCHIZUKI E, YAMAMOTO T, KOMIYAMA Y, NAKAZAWA H, 1998
Identification of Allium products using flame photometric detection gas chromatography and distribution patterns of volatile sulfur compounds. J Agr Food Chem 46(12):5170-5176.

29 UEDA Y, SAKAGUCHI M, HIRAYAMA K, MIYAJIMA R, KIMIZUKA A, 1990
Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agr Biol Chem 54(1):163-169.

30 LAWSON LD, WOOD SG, HUGHES BG, 1991
hplc analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med 57(3):263-270.

31 MUTSCH-ECKNER M, ERDELMEIER CAJ, STICHER O, REUTER HD, 1993
A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum. J Nat Prod 56(6):864-869.

32 PENG JP, CHEN H, QIAO YQ, MA LR, NARUI T, SUZUKI H, OKUYAMA T, KOBAYASHI H, 1996
Two new steroidal saponins from Allium sativum and their inhibitory effects on blood coagulability. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31(8):607-612.

33 MATSUURA H, USHIROGUCHI T, ITAKURA Y, FUWA T, 1989
Further studies on steroidal glycosides from bulbs, roots and leaves of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 37(10):2741-2743.

34 VICTORIA MdC, MORÓN FJ, MARTÍNEZ I, BRITO G, FUENTES V, 2011
Efecto antipirético de la decocción 30% de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum (ajo) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

35 SHARMA V, SETHI M, KUMAR A, RAROTRA JR, 1977
Antibacterial property of Allium sativum in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol 15:466.

36 SHAMS M, SHOKOOHAMIRI MR, AMIRRAJAB N, MOGHADASI B, GHAJARI A, ZEINI F, SADEGHI G, RAZZAGHI M, 2006
In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes. Fitoterapia 77:321-323.

37 MOLINA NM, 1992
Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Allium sativum. Evaluación preclínica, farmacológica et toxicológica (Tesis de graduación). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

38 EL-TANBOULY ND, ABDEL-MEGID RM, 1994
HPLC determination of alliin in garlic and garlic products and their antimicrobal activity. Zagazig J Pharm Sci 3(3A):120-124.

39 CÁCERES A, GIRÓN LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

40 KABELIK J, 1970
Antimicrobial properties of garlic. Pharmazie 25(4):266-270.

41 ADETUMBI M, JAVOR GT, LAU BH, 1986
Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30(3):499-501.

42 APPLETON JA, TANSEY MR, 1975
Inhibition of growth of zoopathogenic fungi by garlic extract. Mycologia 67:882-885.

43 PLODDEE A, PALAKORNKOL R, 1977
Antifungal activity of garlic. Undergraduate Special Project Report 1977:23.

44 DELAHA EC, GARAGUSI VF, 1985
Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum ). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 27(4):485-486.

45 FERNÁNDEZ EJ, 1995
Efecto de dos formulaciones hidroalcohólicas de Allium sativum en el tratamiento de patients con dermatofitosis (Tesis de especialidad en farmacología). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

46 PRASAD G, SHARMA VD, RAO VN, KUMAR A, 1983
Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) treatment against dermatophytosis in man and animals. Indian Vet Med J 7(3):161-163.

47 MARTÍNEZ CROVETTO R, 1981
Plantas utilizadas en medicina en el Noroeste de Corrientes. Miscelanea (Fund Miguel Lillo) 69:7-139.

48 ABDEL-GHAFFAR F, SEMMLER M, AL-RASHEID KA, STRASSEN B, FISCHER K, AKSU G, KLIMPEL S, MEHLHORN H, 2011
The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes. Parasitol Res 108(4):979-984.

49 SOFFAR SA, MOKHTAR GM, 1991
Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in Hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 21(2):497-502.

50 NAHED HA, HODA AT, YOMNA IM, 2009
Effects of garlic on albino mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni: a parasitological and ultrastructural study. Trop Biomed 26(1):40-50.

51 GAAFAR MR, 2012
Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against experimental cryptosporidiosis, Alexandria J of Medicine 48:59–66.

52 DAMRAU F, FERGUSON E, 1949
The modus vivendi of carminative. The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rev Med J 2:757-758.

53 DEBLASI V, DEBROT S, MENOUD A, GENDRE L, SCHOWING J, 1990
Amoebicidal effect of essential oils in vitro. J Toxicol Clin Exp 10:361-373.

54 MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

55 MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de bulbo de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961
Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

57 BOJS G, SVENSSON A, 1988
Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Derm 18(3):179-181.

58 PAPAGEORGION C, CORBET JP, BRANDAO FM, PECEGUEIRO M, BENEZIA C, 1983.
Allergic contact dermatitis to Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Identification of the allergens: the role of mono-di and trisulfides present in garlic. A comparative study in man and animal (guinea pig). Arch Dermatol Res 275(4):229-234.

59 KANEZAWA A, NAKAGAWA S, SUMIYOSHI H, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, DATE S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, FUWA T, 1984
General toxicity tests of garlic extract preparation contained vitamins (Kyoleopin). Pharmacometrics 27(5):909-929.

60 SUMIYOSHI H, KANEZAWA A, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, NAKAGAWA S, 1984
Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats. J Toxicol Sci 9(1):61-75.

61 AL-BEKAIRI AM, SHAH AH, QURESHI S, 1990
Effect of Allium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 29(2):117-125.

62 HUH K, PARK JM, LEE S-IL, 1985
Effect of garlic on the therapeutic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat. Arch Pharm Res 8(4):197-203.

63 SITPRIJA S, PLENGVIDHYA C, KANGKAYA V, BHUVAPANICH S, TUNKAYOON M, 1987
Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase III clinical trial. J Med Assoc 70(2):223-227.

64 MC CRINDLE BW, HELDEN E, CONNER WT, 1998
Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 152(11):1089-1094.

65 CHUTANI SK, BORDIA A, 1981
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Therosclerosis 38:417-421.

66 SHARAF A, 1969
Food plant as a possible factor in fertility contrôle. Qual Plant MaterVeg 17:153.

67 CHAUHAN LS, GARG J, BEDI HK, GUPTA RC, BOMB BS, AGARWAL MP, 1982
Effect of onion, garlic and clofibrate on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of blood in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Med J 76(10):126-127.

68 WHO, 2004
Allium sativum. WHO Monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Bulbis Alii Sativi. Ginebra, Suiza, Oct.28,2004. URL: www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/monograph_volume_one…

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • barajo

Dominican Republic:

  • guajabo

Martinique:

  • kasyalata

Venezuela:

  • majagüillo
  • tarantantán

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • river grava
  • river senna

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • wild guava
  • wild senna
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, aqueous maceration, bath1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, paño (pityriasis versicolor), pimples, ringworm and fungal growth (mycosis between fingers) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For skin conditions and pimples:

Grind 50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets) and add 1 liter (4 cups) of boiled water.  Allow to settle for 12 hours.  Wash affected area 2-3 times a day3.

For tinea (ringworm) and fungal growth (mycosis between fingers):

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Properly wash leaf and crush it.  Apply 5 grams (1 spoonful) of vegetal material on affected area of skin.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Asociation pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes (Terre-de-Bas), UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

6 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

7 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

8 HARRISON J, GARRO C, 1977
Study on anthraquinone derivatives from Cassia alata L. (Leguminosae). Rev Per Bioquim 1(1):31-33.

9 MULCHANDANI N, HASSARAJANI S, 1975
Isolation of 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone from Cassia alata (leaves). Phytochemistry 14:2728b.

10 HAUPTMANN H, NAZARIO L, LACERDA L, 1950
Some constituents of the leaves of Cassia alata. J Am Chem Soc 72(4):1492-1495.

11 RAO C, SUBHASHINI G, 1986
Saponins & leucoanthocyanins in Cassia L. Curr Sci 55(6):320-321.

12 SMOLENSKI S, SILINIS H, FARNSWORTH N, 1975
Alkaloid screening. Lloydia 38(3):225-255.

13 RAI M, UPADHYAY S, 1988
Screening of medicinal plants of Chindwara district against Trychophyton mentagrophytes: a causal organism of Tinea pedis. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 30(1/2):33-36.

14 FIALLO M, VAZQUEZ TINEO M, 1992
Evaluación in vitro de plantas usadas en afecciones de la piel: Extractos vegetales antimicóticos y antimicrobianos. Informe TRAMIL. CIBIMA, Fac de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma UASD, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

15 ACHARARIT C, PANYAYONG W, RUCHATAKOMUT E, 1983
Inhibitory action of some Thai herbs. Mahidol Univ Fac Pharm Bangkok, Thailand.

16 BENJAMIN TV, LAMIKANRA A, 1981
Investigation of Cassia alata, a plant used in Nigeria in the treatment of skin diseases. Quart J Crude Drug Res 19(2/3):93-96.

17 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

18 FUZELLIER MC, MORTIER F, LECTARD P, 1982
Activité antifongique de Cassia alata L. Ann Pharm Fr 40(4):357-363.

19 PALANICHAMY S, AMALA BHASKAR E, BAKTHAVATHSALAM R, NAGARAJAN S, 1991
Wound healing activity of Cassia alata. Fitoterapia 62(1):153-156.

20 DAMODARAN S, VENKATARAMAN S, 1994
A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, Linn. Leaf extract against pityriasis versicolor. J Ethnopharmacol 42(1):19-23.

21 MOKKHASMIT M, NGARMWATHANA W, SAWASDIMONGKOL K, PERMPHIPHAT U, 1971
Pharmacological evaluation of Thai medicinal plants (cont.). J Med Assoc Thai 54(7):490-504.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BARCELO H, LAYNEZ A, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Clases Toxicidad Aguda (CTA) de hoja fresca de Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

23 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas tópica de hoja fresca machacada de Senna alata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

24 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de la maceración acuosa de hoja fresca de Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 LOGARTO PARRA A, SILVA YHEBRA R, GUERRA SARDINAS I, IGLESIAS BUELA L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

26 MOKKHASMIT M, SWATDIMONGKOL K, SATRAWAHA P, 1971
Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants. Bull Dept Med Sci 12(2-4):36-65.

27 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, BETANCOURT J, GARCIA A, PILOTO J, DECALO M, 2002
Passiflora incarnata L. y Senna alata (L.) Roxo: Estudio toxicogenético que emplea 2 sistemas de ensayos a corto plazo. Rev Cubana Plant Med 7(1):27-31.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • barajo

Dominican Republic:

  • guajabo

Martinique:

  • kasyalata

Venezuela:

  • majagüillo
  • tarantantán

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • river grava
  • river senna

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • wild guava
  • wild senna
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, juice, applied locally1,25

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, paño (pityriasis versicolor), pimples, ringworm and fungal growth (mycosis between fingers) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For skin conditions and pimples:

Grind 50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets) and add 1 liter (4 cups) of boiled water.  Allow to settle for 12 hours.  Wash affected area 2-3 times a day3.

For tinea (ringworm) and fungal growth (mycosis between fingers):

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Properly wash leaf and crush it.  Apply 5 grams (1 spoonful) of vegetal material on affected area of skin.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Asociation pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes (Terre-de-Bas), UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

6 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

7 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

8 HARRISON J, GARRO C, 1977
Study on anthraquinone derivatives from Cassia alata L. (Leguminosae). Rev Per Bioquim 1(1):31-33.

9 MULCHANDANI N, HASSARAJANI S, 1975
Isolation of 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone from Cassia alata (leaves). Phytochemistry 14:2728b.

10 HAUPTMANN H, NAZARIO L, LACERDA L, 1950
Some constituents of the leaves of Cassia alata. J Am Chem Soc 72(4):1492-1495.

11 RAO C, SUBHASHINI G, 1986
Saponins & leucoanthocyanins in Cassia L. Curr Sci 55(6):320-321.

12 SMOLENSKI S, SILINIS H, FARNSWORTH N, 1975
Alkaloid screening. Lloydia 38(3):225-255.

13 RAI M, UPADHYAY S, 1988
Screening of medicinal plants of Chindwara district against Trychophyton mentagrophytes: a causal organism of Tinea pedis. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 30(1/2):33-36.

14 FIALLO M, VAZQUEZ TINEO M, 1992
Evaluación in vitro de plantas usadas en afecciones de la piel: Extractos vegetales antimicóticos y antimicrobianos. Informe TRAMIL. CIBIMA, Fac de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma UASD, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

15 ACHARARIT C, PANYAYONG W, RUCHATAKOMUT E, 1983
Inhibitory action of some Thai herbs. Mahidol Univ Fac Pharm Bangkok, Thailand.

16 BENJAMIN TV, LAMIKANRA A, 1981
Investigation of Cassia alata, a plant used in Nigeria in the treatment of skin diseases. Quart J Crude Drug Res 19(2/3):93-96.

17 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

18 FUZELLIER MC, MORTIER F, LECTARD P, 1982
Activité antifongique de Cassia alata L. Ann Pharm Fr 40(4):357-363.

19 PALANICHAMY S, AMALA BHASKAR E, BAKTHAVATHSALAM R, NAGARAJAN S, 1991
Wound healing activity of Cassia alata. Fitoterapia 62(1):153-156.

20 DAMODARAN S, VENKATARAMAN S, 1994
A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, Linn. Leaf extract against pityriasis versicolor. J Ethnopharmacol 42(1):19-23.

21 MOKKHASMIT M, NGARMWATHANA W, SAWASDIMONGKOL K, PERMPHIPHAT U, 1971
Pharmacological evaluation of Thai medicinal plants (cont.). J Med Assoc Thai 54(7):490-504.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BARCELO H, LAYNEZ A, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Clases Toxicidad Aguda (CTA) de hoja fresca de Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

23 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas tópica de hoja fresca machacada de Senna alata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

24 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de la maceración acuosa de hoja fresca de Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 LOGARTO PARRA A, SILVA YHEBRA R, GUERRA SARDINAS I, IGLESIAS BUELA L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

26 MOKKHASMIT M, SWATDIMONGKOL K, SATRAWAHA P, 1971
Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants. Bull Dept Med Sci 12(2-4):36-65.

27 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, BETANCOURT J, GARCIA A, PILOTO J, DECALO M, 2002
Passiflora incarnata L. y Senna alata (L.) Roxo: Estudio toxicogenético que emplea 2 sistemas de ensayos a corto plazo. Rev Cubana Plant Med 7(1):27-31.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • brusca

Dominica:

  • café moucha

Guatemala:

  • frijolillo

Honduras:

  • frijolillo

Haiti:

  • terrier rouge
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, crushed, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

Use for "bad blood" is part of the cultural tradition of our communities.  It has not been listed in the TRAMIL classification.

According to published and other information:

Use of the leaf for skin conditions, headache, body ache, sorethroat, fever and jaundice, and use of the seed for sore and tinea are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use of the leaf for stomach pain, of the seed for body ache and of the root for stomach pain, sorethroat and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, jaundice or stomach pain for more than 3 days, or skin conditions for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Thoroughly wash 30–50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets), mash and apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

For stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15 grams of leaf (7-10 leaflets) and 15 grams of root in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day36.

For headache, fever, jaundice, sorethroat and body ache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977
Anthraquinone pigments from Cassia occidentalis. Planta Med Suppl 32(4):375-377.

7 RAI PP, SHOK M, 1983
Anthraquinone glycosides from plant parts of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J Pharm Sci 45(2):87-88.

8 ANTON R, DUQUENOIS P, 1968
Contribution à l'étude chimique du Cassia occidentalis L. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 26(2):673-680.

9 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977
Flavonoids from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 16(7):1107-1108.

10 MAJUMDAR SG, BASAK B, LASKAR S, 1987
Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of some Cassia species. J Indian Chem Soc 64(4):259-260.

11 ALVES AC, 1964
Pharmacological study of the root of Cassia occidentalis. An Fac Farm Porto 24:65-119.

12 WADER GR, KUDAV NA, 1987
Chemical investigation of Cassia occidentalis Linn. with special reference to isolation of xanthones from Cassia spp. Indian J of Chemisitry 26(B7):703.

13 KUDAV NA, KULKARNI A,B 1974
Chemical investigation on Cassia occidentalis. II. Isolation of islandicin, helminthosporine, xanthonin and NMR spectral studies of cassiollin and its derivatives. Indian J Chem 12:1042-1044.

14 LAL-JAWAHAR, GUPTA-PURAN-CHANDRA, 1973
Physcion and phytosterol from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 12(5):1186.

15 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, OCAMPO R, PAZOS L, 2001
Tránsito intestinal en ratones, con extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995
Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

18 PEREZ C, SUAREZ C, 1997
Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Candida albicans. Amer J Chinese Med 25(2):181-184.

19 HUSSAIN HS, DEENI YY, 1991
Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

20 SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN G, ROJAS DE ARIAS A, 1992
A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother Res 6(2):68-73.

21 TONA L, NGIMBI NP, TSAKALA M, MESIA K, CIMANGA K, ASPERS S, DE BRUYNE T, PIETERS L, TOTTE J, VLIETINCK AJ, 1999
Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1/3):193-203.

22 SADIQUE J, CHANDRA T, THENMOZHI V, ELANGO V, 1987
Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19(2):201-212.

23 SARAF S, DIXIT VK, TRIPATHI SC, PATNAIK GK, 1994
Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int J Pharmacog 32(2):178-183.

24 JAFRI MA, JALIS SUBHANI M, JAVED K, SINGH S, 1999
Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66(3):355-361.

25 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HS, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

26 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L. y Cassia occidentalis L. en conejo y cobayo. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. 

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de semillas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 O'HARA P, PIERCE K, 1974
A toxic cardiomyopathy caused by Cassia occidentalis. II Biochemical studies in poisoned rabbits. Vet Pathol 11(2):110-124.

33 COLVIN BM, HARRISON LR, SANGSTER LT, GOSSER HS, 1986
Cassia occidentalis toxicosis in growing pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(4):423-426.

34 MARTINS E, MARTINS VM, RIET F, SONCINI RA, PARABONI SV, 1986
Intoxicação por Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae) em suínos. Pesq Vet Bras 6(2):35-38.

35 BARTH AT, KOMMERS GO, SALLES MS, WOUTERS F, DE BARROS CS, 1994
Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(6):541-545.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p174.