urinary infection

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • valeriana

Honduras:

  • valeriana

Haiti:

  • vetivè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  apical bud, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982
Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21(3):793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997
New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996
New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989
Extraction of khusimol and other components from Vetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CÁCERES A, GONZÁLEZ S, GIRÓN L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996
Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958
Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 HIRUMA-LIMA CA, SOUZA BRITO AR, 2002
Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982
Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • valeriana

Honduras:

  • valeriana

Haiti:

  • vetivè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  apical bud, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982
Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21(3):793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997
New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996
New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989
Extraction of khusimol and other components from Vetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CÁCERES A, GONZÁLEZ S, GIRÓN L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996
Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958
Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 HIRUMA-LIMA CA, SOUZA BRITO AR, 2002
Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982
Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Nicaragua:

  • 'kukus

Dominica:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

Dominican Republic:

  • cocotero

Guatemala:

  • cocotero

Honduras:

  • cocotero
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit water, fresh, orally5

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to available information:

Use for asthma, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

There is no information available on this resource for asthmatic crisis.

Use for urinary infections is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, urinary infection or renal stones, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urinary infection symptoms last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use as an orally administered medicine during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

External use for arthritis, flu, burns and nacíos (boils) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)6 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should boils persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research31

For asthma:

Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day.

For urinary ailments:

Drink 250 mL (1 cup) of coconut water 4-6 times a day31.

For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

3 AKER CH, GARMENDIA M, DEVES R, FERNANDEZ P, FRITHZ E, HERNANDEZ M, SIMEON A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Bosawas. Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua UNAN-León, León, Nicaragua.

4 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

7 MOURA FE JA, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975
Unsaponifiable matter of crude and processed coconut oil. J Sci Food Agr 26(4):523-531.

8 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

9 SAITTAGAROON S, KAWAKISHI S, NAMIKI M, 1985
Generation of mannitol from copra meal. J Food Sci 50(3):757-760.

10 TAKEUCHI K, 1961
Amino acids in the endosperm of some Amazonian Palmae. Chiba Daigaku Buurii Gakuba Kiyo Shizen Kagaku 3:321-325.

11 JANSZ BR, JEYARAJ EE, PIERIS N, ABEYRATNE DJ, 1974
Cyanide liberation from linamarin. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 2:57-65.

12 KINDERLERER JL, KELLARD B, 1987
Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut. Chem Ind (London) 16:567-568.

13 MANNAN A, AHMAD K, 1966
Studies on vitamin E in foods of East Pakistan. Pak J Biol Agr Sci 9:13.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

15 CAMBAR P, ALGER J, 1989
Efectos broncopulmonares del aceite de coco en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

16 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del agua de fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

17 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la pulpa tierna del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

18 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005
Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

19 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del aceite del fruto de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 VENKATARAMAN S, RAMANUJAN T, VENKATASUBBU V, 1980
Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shell Cocos nucifera L. J Ethnopharmacol 2(3):291-293.

23 JAIN SK, AGRAWAL SC, 1992
Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 46(1):1-6.

24 CACERES A, GIRON LM, MARTINEZ AM, 1987
Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatments of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol 19(3):233-245.

25 RODRÍGUEZ M, SÁNCHEZ C, 1982
Diuresis del agua de pipa (Cocos nucifera) en ratas. Rev Méd Panamá 7(3):186-19l.

26 KETUSINH O, 1954
Risks associate with intravenous infusion of coconut juice. J Med Ass Thailand 37(5):249-271.

27 MORTON J, 1981
Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. Springfield, USA: III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

28 BOOTH AN, BICKOFF EM, KOHLER GO, 1960
Estrogen-like activity in vegetable oils and mill by-products. Science 131:1807-1808.

29 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso del aceite del fruto de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, de aceite del fruto fresco de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del aceite del fruto puro de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 SALERNO JW, SMITH DE, 1991
The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibiting of human colon cancer growth in vitro. Anticancer Res 11(1):209-215.

34 LOCNISKAR M, BELURY MA, CUMBERLAND AG, PATRICK KE, FISCHER SM, 1991
The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide, comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil. Carcinogenesis 12(6):1023-1028.

35 BERTON TR, FISCHER SM, CONTI CJ, LOCNISKAR MF, 1996
Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil. Nutr Cancer 26(3):353-363.

36 CHINDAVANIG A, 1971
Effect of vegetable oils in plasma cholesterol in man and dog. Master Thesis, Dept. Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

37 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • aguacate

Dominican Republic:

  • aguacate

Mexico:

  • aguacate

Barbados:

  • pear tree

Martinique:

  • zaboka
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for amenorrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma, bronchitis or cough last more than 5 days, or should urinary infection persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the risks of documented interactions with warfarin and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by persons taking these medicines5.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

 

Not for use during pregnancy because it may have abortifacient effect.

The fruit of Persea americana is widely used for human consumption.

For amenorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1/2-1 cup 3-4 times a day26.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

5 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

6 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Persea americana. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Feb. 26, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

7 BERGH BO, SCORA RW, STOREY WB, 1973
Comparison of leaf terpenes in Persea subgenus persea. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 134(2)130-134.

8 KING JR, KNIGHT RJ, 1992
Volatile components of the leaves of various avocado cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1182-1185.

9 DE ALMEIDA AP, MIRANDA MMFS, SIMONI IC, WIGG MD, LAGROTA MHC, COSTA SS, 1998
Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion. Phytother Res 12(8):562-567.

10 MERIÇLI F, MERIÇLI AH, YILMAZ F, YÜNCÜLER G, YÜNCÜLER O, 1992
Flavonoids of avocado (Persea americana) leaves. Acta Pharm Turc 34(2):61-63.

11 BATE-SMITH EC, 1975
Phytochemistry of proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 14(4):1107-1113.

12 MURAKOSHI S, ISOGAI A, CHANG CF, KAMIKADO T, SAKURAI A, TAMURA S, 1976
The effects of two components from avocado leaves (Persea americana) and related compounds on the growth of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkaishi 20:87-91.

13 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas TRAMIL en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de ciencias químicas y farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 HERRERA J, 1986
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

15 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1999
Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

17 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 ADEYEMI OO, OKPO SO, OGUNTI OO, 2002
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill Lauraceae. Fitoterapia 73(5):375-380.

19 HERRERA J, 1988
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca machacada de Persea americana Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 CRAIGMILL AL, SEAWRIGHT AA, MATTILA T, FROST AJ, 1989
Pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (Persea americana). Aust Vet J 66(7):206-211.

23 GRANT R, BASSON PA, BOOKER HH, HOFHERR JB, ANTHONISSEN M, 1991
Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leaves. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62(1):21-22.