lice (pediculosis)

  aerial parts, fried with coconut milk, head wash2

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • asorosi

Honduras:

  • calaica

Barbados:

  • cerasee

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • corailee
  • popololo
  • sorrow seed

Puerto Rico:

  • cundeamor

Dominican Republic:

  • cundeamor

Venezuela:

  • cundeamor

Dominica:

  • kokouli

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • maiden blush

Costa Rica:

  • sorosí

Guatemala:

  • sorosí
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

aerial parts, crushed and/ or in aqueous maceration, bath, friction, and local application1-9, 51

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for furuncles and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Use for dry skin conditions, itching, lice (pediculosis) and burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should furuncles last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Do not take orally during pregnancy due to risk of abortion.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash the aerial parts of the plant thoroughly and crush them.  Apply 30 grams (a handful) of vegetal material on the affected area of skin 3 times a day.

For common cold:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-1995
Encuestas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

7 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (region Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

8 DELENS M, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

9 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala.

10 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

11 O'REILLY A, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

12 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

13 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

14 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

15 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de médecine et de pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

16 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

17 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p110.

18 YASUDA M, IWAMOTO M, OKABE H, YAMAUCHI T, 1984
Structures of momordicines I, II and III, the bitter principles in the leaves and vines of Momordica charantia. Chem Pharm Bull 32(5):2044-2047.

19 DHALLA NS, GUPTA KC, SASTRY MS, MALHOTRA CL, 1961
Chemical composition of the fruit of Momordica charantia. Indian J Pharmacy 23:128-130.

20 KANNA B, 1976
Insulin from Momordica charantia. Patent-Japan Kokai.

21 NG TB, YEUNG HW, 1984
Bioactive constituents of Cucurbitaceae plants with special emphasis on Momordica charantia and Trichosanthes kirilowii. Seoul, Korea: Proc. 5th. Symposium Medicinal Plants and Spices.

22 KHANNA P, MOHAN S, 1973
Isolation and identification of diosgenin and sterols from fruits and in vitro cultures of Momordica charantia. Indian J Exp Biol 11:58-60.

23 OKABE H, MIYAHARA K, YAMAGUCHI T, MIYAHARA K, KAWASAKI T, 1980
Studies on the constituents of Momordica charantia L. I: Isolation and characterization of momordicosides A and B, glycosides of a pentahydroxy-cucurbitane triterpene. Chem Pharm Bull 28(9):2753-2762.

24 RODRIGUEZ DB, RAYMUNDO LC, TUNG-CHING LEE, SIMPSON KL, CHICHESTER CO, 1976
Carotenoid pigment changes in ripening Momordica charantia fruits. Ann Bot (London) 40(3):615-624.

25 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

26 HEAL R, ROGERS E, WALLACE RT, STARNES O, 1950
A survey of plants for insecticidal activity. Lloydia 13(2):89-162.

27 HUSSAIN HSN, DEENI YY, 1991
Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacol 29(1):51-56.

28 MANEELRT S, SATTHAMPONGSA A, 1978
Antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia. Undergraduate special project report. Bangkok, Thailand: Mahidol University. Faculty of Pharmacy.

29 MOKKHASMIT M, SAWASDIMONGKOL K, SATRAWAHA P, 1971
Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants. Bull Dept Med Sci 12(1/2):36-65.

30 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill y Cassia occidentalis L. en cobayos. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L. y Cassia occidentalis L. en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

32 LAGARTO A, COURET M, GUERRA I, LOPEZ R, 2008
Toxicidad aguda oral y ensayos de irritación de extractos acuoso e hidroalcohólico de (follaje) Momordica charantia L. Rev Cubana Plant Med [online] 13(3):0-0. Disponible en: http://bvs.sld.cu/revistas/pla/vol13_3_08/pla05308.htm

33 TABORA O, 1986
Estudio de toxicidad aguda en ratones de la fracción hipoglucemiante de Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: IV Semana Científica Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH.

34 PRAKASH AO, MATHUR R, 1976
Screening of Indian plants for antifertility activity. Indian J Exp Biol 14(5):623-626. 

35 RUIZ AR, DE LA TORRE RA, ALONSO N, VILLAESCUSA A, BETANCOURT J, VIZOSO A, 1996
Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans. J Ethnopharmacol 52(3):123-127.

36 SHARMA VN, SOGANI RK, ARORA RB, 1960
Some observations on hypoglycemic activity of Momordica charantia. Indian J Med Res 48(4):471-477.

37 UCHE-NWACHI EO, MC EWEN C, 2010
Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on the Sprague Dawley rats. African J of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 7(1):24-33.

38 DIXIT VP, KHANNA P, BHARGAVA SK, 1978
Effects of Momordica charantia fruit extract on the testicular function of dog. Planta Med 34(3):280-286.

39 KOENTJORO-SOEHADI T, SANTA I, 1982
Perspectives of male contraception with regards to Indonesian traditional drugs. Bali, Indonesia: 2nd National Congress of Indonesian Society of Andrology.

40 KHAN AH, BURNEY A, 1962
A preliminary study of the hypoglycemic properties of indigenous plants. Pakistan J Med Res 2:100-116.

41 WEST M, SIDRAK G, STREET S, 1971
The anti-growth properties of extracts from Momordica charantia. West Indian Med J 20(1):25-34.

42 NG T, 1988
Effects of momorcharins on ovarian response to gonadotropin induced superovulation in mice. Int J Fertil 33(2):123-128.

43 YEUNG HW, LI WW, FENG Z, BARBIERI L, STIRPE F, 1988
Trichosanthin, alpha-momorcharin and beta-momorcharin: Identity of abortifacient and ribosome-inactivating protein. Int J Peptide Protein Res 31(3):265-268.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • tabaco
  • tabak
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, juice, decoction or infusion, rubbed on scalp2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for lice (pediculosis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Do not ingest the leaf or any of its preparations due to toxicity risk.

In case of poisoning, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For lice (pediculosis):

Prepare a decoction or an infusion with 2-4 dried leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to ground dried leaves, cover and leave to cool.  Apply preparation and rub scalp, wash after 2-3 hours.  Use for 2-3 days in succession; repeat treatment after one week.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 SUN J, ZHU Z, ZHU Y, 1986
Studies on 6-benzyladenine localization in callus cells of tobacco. Zhiwa Xuebao 25(5):480-482.

3 BOWMAN DT, WEEKS WW, WILKINSON CA, 1991
Stability of alkaloid production in flue-cured tobacco. Crop Sci 31(5):1121-1124.

4 COURT WA, HENDEL JG, 1978
Determination of nonvolatile organic and fatty acids in flue-cured tobacco by gas-liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 16(7):314-317.

5 HOFFMANN D, ADAMS JD, LISK D, FISENNE I, BRUNNEMANN KD, 1987
Toxic and carcinogenic agents in dry and moist snuff. J Natl Cancer Inst 79(6):1281-1286.

6 ADESINA SK, 1982
Studies on a Nigerian herbal anticonvulsant recipe. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(2):93-100.

7 NISHIKAWAJI S, FUJIMORI T, MATSUSHIMA S, KATO K, 1983
Sesquiterpenoids from flue-cured tobacco leaves. Phytochemistry 22(8):1819-1820.

8 SONGSTAD DD, KURZ WGW, NESSLER CL, 1991
Tyramine accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum transformed with a chimeric trytophan decarboxylase gene. Phytochemistry 30(10):3245-3246.

9 LEETE E, 1983
Biosynthesis and metabolism of the tobacco alkaloids. In: PELLETIER SW (Ed). Alkaloids: Chemical and biological perspectives. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1:85-152.

10 BOULOGNE I, 2010
Recherche d’activités insecticides par contact (Test Contact toxicity), par ingestion (Ingestion Bioassay) et insectifuge (Repellent Test) de la décoction aqueuse de feuille sèche de Nicotiana tabacum L. Travail TRAMIL. Université des Antilles et de la Guyane/INRA, UR1321, ASTRO, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe.

11 BHASIN HD, 1926
Annual report of the entomologist to government, Punjab, Lyallpur, for the year 1924-25. Rept Operations Dept Agr Punjab 1(II):69-121.

12 YAMAGUCHI K, SUZUKI T, KATAYAMA A, SASA M, IIDA S, 1950
Insecticidal action of Japanese plants. II. A general method of detecting effective fractions and its application to 24 species of insecticidal plants. Botyu Kagaku 15:62-70.

13 ZHAO SH, ZHANG X, 1982
On the antifeedant and toxicities of natural organic insecticides against snout moth's larva of rice. Chin J Agr Sci 2:55-60.

14 VAN PUYVELDE L, GEYSEN D, AYOBANGIRA FX, HAKIZAMUNGU E, NSHIMIYIMANA A, KALISA A, 1985
Screening of medicinal plants of Rwanda for acaricidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 13(2):209-215.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, 2011
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada y piel sana, porción de hojas secas de Nicotiana tabacum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 GONCALO M, COUTO J, GONCALO S, 1990
Allergic contact dermatitis from Nicotiana tabacum. Contact Dermatitis 22(3):188-189.

17 BALLARD T, EHLERS J, FREUND E, AUSLANDER M, BRANDT V, HALPERIN W, 1995
Green tobacco sickness: occupational nicotine poisoning in tobacco workers. Arch Environ Health 50(5):384-389.

18 BECKER CG, VAN HAMONT N, WAGNER M, 1981
Tobacco, cocoa, coffee, and ragweed: cross-reacting allergens that activate factor-XII- dependent pathways. Blood 58(5):861-867.

19 ANON, 1993
Green tobacco sickness in tobacco harvesters - Kentucky, 1992. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rept 42(13):237-240.

20 TAYLOR P, 1996
Agents acting at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic ganglia. In: Goodman, Gilman’s: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Goodman LS, Limbird LE, Milinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG, 9th ed. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., International Edition. p193.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • tabaco
  • tabak
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  mashed / crushed leaf, applied and rubbed on scalp1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for lice (pediculosis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Do not ingest the leaf or any of its preparations due to toxicity risk.

In case of poisoning, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For lice (pediculosis):

Prepare a decoction or an infusion with 2-4 dried leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to ground dried leaves, cover and leave to cool.  Apply preparation and rub scalp, wash after 2-3 hours.  Use for 2-3 days in succession; repeat treatment after one week.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 SUN J, ZHU Z, ZHU Y, 1986
Studies on 6-benzyladenine localization in callus cells of tobacco. Zhiwa Xuebao 25(5):480-482.

3 BOWMAN DT, WEEKS WW, WILKINSON CA, 1991
Stability of alkaloid production in flue-cured tobacco. Crop Sci 31(5):1121-1124.

4 COURT WA, HENDEL JG, 1978
Determination of nonvolatile organic and fatty acids in flue-cured tobacco by gas-liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 16(7):314-317.

5 HOFFMANN D, ADAMS JD, LISK D, FISENNE I, BRUNNEMANN KD, 1987
Toxic and carcinogenic agents in dry and moist snuff. J Natl Cancer Inst 79(6):1281-1286.

6 ADESINA SK, 1982
Studies on a Nigerian herbal anticonvulsant recipe. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(2):93-100.

7 NISHIKAWAJI S, FUJIMORI T, MATSUSHIMA S, KATO K, 1983
Sesquiterpenoids from flue-cured tobacco leaves. Phytochemistry 22(8):1819-1820.

8 SONGSTAD DD, KURZ WGW, NESSLER CL, 1991
Tyramine accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum transformed with a chimeric trytophan decarboxylase gene. Phytochemistry 30(10):3245-3246.

9 LEETE E, 1983
Biosynthesis and metabolism of the tobacco alkaloids. In: PELLETIER SW (Ed). Alkaloids: Chemical and biological perspectives. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1:85-152.

10 BOULOGNE I, 2010
Recherche d’activités insecticides par contact (Test Contact toxicity), par ingestion (Ingestion Bioassay) et insectifuge (Repellent Test) de la décoction aqueuse de feuille sèche de Nicotiana tabacum L. Travail TRAMIL. Université des Antilles et de la Guyane/INRA, UR1321, ASTRO, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe.

11 BHASIN HD, 1926
Annual report of the entomologist to government, Punjab, Lyallpur, for the year 1924-25. Rept Operations Dept Agr Punjab 1(II):69-121.

12 YAMAGUCHI K, SUZUKI T, KATAYAMA A, SASA M, IIDA S, 1950
Insecticidal action of Japanese plants. II. A general method of detecting effective fractions and its application to 24 species of insecticidal plants. Botyu Kagaku 15:62-70.

13 ZHAO SH, ZHANG X, 1982
On the antifeedant and toxicities of natural organic insecticides against snout moth's larva of rice. Chin J Agr Sci 2:55-60.

14 VAN PUYVELDE L, GEYSEN D, AYOBANGIRA FX, HAKIZAMUNGU E, NSHIMIYIMANA A, KALISA A, 1985
Screening of medicinal plants of Rwanda for acaricidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 13(2):209-215.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, 2011
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada y piel sana, porción de hojas secas de Nicotiana tabacum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 GONCALO M, COUTO J, GONCALO S, 1990
Allergic contact dermatitis from Nicotiana tabacum. Contact Dermatitis 22(3):188-189.

17 BALLARD T, EHLERS J, FREUND E, AUSLANDER M, BRANDT V, HALPERIN W, 1995
Green tobacco sickness: occupational nicotine poisoning in tobacco workers. Arch Environ Health 50(5):384-389.

18 BECKER CG, VAN HAMONT N, WAGNER M, 1981
Tobacco, cocoa, coffee, and ragweed: cross-reacting allergens that activate factor-XII- dependent pathways. Blood 58(5):861-867.

19 ANON, 1993
Green tobacco sickness in tobacco harvesters - Kentucky, 1992. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rept 42(13):237-240.

20 TAYLOR P, 1996
Agents acting at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic ganglia. In: Goodman, Gilman’s: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Goodman LS, Limbird LE, Milinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG, 9th ed. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., International Edition. p193.