nervous breakdown

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • cabalonga
  • fey sezi
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 SIDDIQUI S, SIDDIQUI BS, ADIL Q, BEGUM S, 1992
Cardenolides and triterpenoids of the leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 31(10):3541-3546.

4 BEGUM S, ADIL Q, SIDDIQUI BS, SIDDIQUI S, 1993
Constituents of the leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. J Nat Prod 56(4):613-617.

5 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, WAN ASC, 1992
Cardiac glycosides from the leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 31(9):3189-3193.

6 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, YAHARA S, NOHARA T, 1994
Glycosides of 19-formylthevetiogenin and 5-alpha-thevetiogenin from Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 37(5):1429-1432.

7 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, NOHARA T, 1992
C-Nor-D-homo-cardenolide glycosides from Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochemistry 31(1):251-254.

8 ABE F, YAMAUCHI T, YAHARA S, NOHARA T, 1995
Minor iridoids from Thevetia peruviana. Phytochemistry 38(3):793-794.

9 DANIEL M, SABNIS S, 1978
Chemotaxonomical studies on Apocynaceae. Indian J Exp Biol 16(4):512-513.

10 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plant. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

11 ABE F, IWASE Y, YAMAUCHI T, YAHARA S, NOHARA T, 1995
Flavonol sinapoyl glycosides from leaves of Thevetia peruviana. Phytochemistry 40(2):577-581.

12 LI CC, 1962
Pharmacological investigation of folia Thevetia peruviana Merr. Yao Xue Xue Bao 13:753-756.

13 THORP RH, WATSON TR, 1953
A survey of the occurrence of cardio-active constituents in plants growing wild in Australia. I. Families Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Aust J Exp Biol 31(5):529-532.

14 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

15 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

16 EDDLESTON M, ARIARATNAM CA, SJOSTROM L, JAYALATH S, RAJAKANTHAN K, RAJAPAKSE S, COLBERT D, MEYER WP, PERERA G, Attapattu s, kularatne sa, sheriff mr, warrell da, 2000
Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital. Heart 83(3):301-306.

17 PHADKE MV, NAIK SG, 1963
Yellow oleander (Cerebra thevetia) poisoning. (Case report). Indian J Child Health 12:210-213.

18 Abreu Matos FJ, 2000
Plantas medicinais, guía de seleção e emprego de plantas usadas em fitoterapia no nordeste do Brasil. 2ª ed. Fortaleza, Brasil: UFC Imprensa universitária. p97.

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominica:

  • bwa kasav
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for nervous breakdown is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Not for use concurrently with alcoholic beverages or drugs that are depressants of the central nervous system.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the nervous breakdown last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use for more than seven consecutive days.

For nervous breakdown: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 PINEDA M, 1990
Fitoquímica de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • llantén

Guadeloupe:

  • miyé
  • plantain

Martinique:

  • miyé
  • plantain

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • miyé
  • plantain

Dominica:

  • planten

Haiti:

  • planten
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

Use against "bad blood" is a traditional cultural use and is not classified in the TRAMIL program.

According to published and other information:

Use for "malozie" (eye injuries) including conjunctivitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with conjunctiva-irritating substances should be avoided.

In the event of conjunctivitis, there is the risk of increasing irritation by applying the leaf juice.

To avoid eye irritation, the aqueous preparation should be filtered before application.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should eye injuries or conjunctivitis persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for inflammation and "nervous breakdown" is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should "nervous breakdown" persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For conjunctivitis:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 20 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of fresh leaf in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 20 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of fresh leaf, cover pot and leave to settle during 5-10 minutes.  Filter, allow to cool and wash eye with the content of a dropper (3 mL) every 2 hours42.

All home-made preparations with medicinal herbs for eye use must be preserved cold and should be disposed of 24 hours after preparation.

For inflammation and nervous breakdown: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

7 LEBEDEV-KOSOV VI, 1980
Flavonoids and iridoids of Plantago major L. and P. asiatica L. Rast Resur 16(3):403-406.

8 MAKSYUTINA NP, 1971
Baicalein and scutellarein derivatives in Plantago major leaves. Khim Prir Soedin 7(3):374-375.

9 HARBORNE JB, WILLIAMS CA, 1971
Comparative biochemistry of flavonoids. XIII. 6-hydroxyluteolin and scutellarein as phyletic markers in higher plants. Phytochemistry 10(2):367-378.

10 ANDRZEJEWSKA-GOLEC E, SWIATEK L, 1984
Chemotaxonomic investigations on the genus plantago. I. Analysis of iridoid fraction. Herba Pol 30(1):9-16.

11 PAILER M, HASCHKE-HOFMEISTER E, 1969
Components of Plantago major. Planta Med 17(2):139-145.

12 MAKSYUTINA NP, 1971
Hydroxycinnamic acids from Plantago major and Plantago lanceolata. Khim Prir Soedin 7(6):824-825.

13 NORO Y, HISATA Y, OKUDA K, KAWAMURA T, KASAHARA Y, TANAKA T, SAKAI E, NISIBE S, SASAHARA M, 1991
Pharmacognostical studies of plantagins herba (VII) on the phenylethanoid contents of Plantago spp. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45(1):24-28.

14 JANSSON O, 1974
Hylloquinone (vitamin k-1) levels in leaves of plant species differing in susceptibility to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Physiol Plant 31:323.

15 OBOLENTSEVA GV, KHADZHAI YI, 1966
Pharmacological testing of plantaglucide. Farmakol Toksikol 29(4):469-472.

16 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p131.

17 SIDDIQUI M, HAKIM M, 1991
Crude drugs and their nutrient values. J of the National Integrated Med Assoc 33(1):8-10.

18 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad sedante-tranquilizante en ratón, dosis repetidas del extracto acuoso de hoja de Plantago major. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, BOULOGNE I, 2013
A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies. Informe TRAMIL. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13:126.

21 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de las hojas frescas de Plantago major L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

23 LAMBEV I, MARKOV M, PAVLOVA N, 1981
Study of the antiinflammatory and capillary restorative activity of a dispersed substance from Plantago major L. Probl Nutr Med 9(3):162-169.

24 NÚÑEZ ME, DA SILVA JA, SOUCCAR C, LAPA AJ, 1997
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Plantago major L.
Pharmaceutical Biology 35(2):99-104.

25 CAMBAR P, SANTOS A, COUSIN L, 1985
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Plantago major (Llantén) en el choque anafiláctico inducido por albúmina de huevo en el conejo. Memoria de la III Semana Científica de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras.

26 DUCKETT S, 1980
Plantain leaf for poison ivy. N Engl J Med 303(10):583.

27 BETANCOURT J, MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de partes aéreas de Plantago major L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias. Médicas “Dr. Salvador. Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 CAMBAR P, 1989
Efecto antiinflamatorio del extracto acuoso de la hoja de llantén (Plantago major). Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

29 BETANCOURT J, MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de partes aéreas de Plantago major L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias. Médicas “Dr. Salvador. Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Toxicidad por vía oral en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Plantago major. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Irritabilidad ocular en conejos, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Plantago major. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Irritabilidad oftálmica de la decocción 30% de hojas secas de Plantago major L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 LOGARTO PARRA A, SILVA YHEBRA R, GUERRA SARDINAS I, IGLESIAS BUELA L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

34 DUKE J, 1985
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

35 KOSSMANN I, VICENTE C, 1992
Salud y Plantas Medicinales. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. Planeta.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p273.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • kamomy
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for nervous breakdown is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

TRAMIL Research14

For nervous breakdown:

Prepare a decoction with 5-10 grams of fresh leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

 

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1992
Pseudognaphalium viscosum (H.B.K.) W. A. Weber. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

4 SALEH NA, MANSOUR RM, EL-KAREEMY ZA, FAYED AA, 1988
The chemosystematics of local members of the subtribe Gnaphaliinae (Compositae). Biochem Syst Ecol 16(7-8):615-618.

5 GONZÁLEZ M, LÓPEZ IL, GONZÁLEZ MS, TENA JA, 2004
Plantas medicinales del estado de Durango y zonas aledañas. CIIDIR Durango. Instituto Politécnico Nacional. México.

6 HERRERA J, 1992
Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

7 WENIGER B, 1992
Gnaphalium, preliminary report inform to TRAMIL VI. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

8 CHRISTENSEN H, THOMAS T, (Eds.), 1973
The toxic substances list. Maryland, USA: U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare. p1001.

9 DE MEESTER C, ROLLMANN B, MUPENDA K, MARY Y, 1990
The mutagenicity of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) preparations. Food Addit Contam 7(1):125-136.

10 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos. Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Guadeloupe:

  • goyav
  • goyav
  • gwayav
  • gwayav

Dominica:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Haiti:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • guava

Grenada:

  • guava

Venezuela:

  • guayaba

Colombia:

  • guayaba

Guatemala:

  • guayaba

Panama:

  • guayaba

Mexico:

  • guayaba

Dominican Republic:

  • guayaba

Honduras:

  • guayabo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction with salt and sugar, orally and rubbed, usually together with Annona muricata1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

8 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

9 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

10 SOLLS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTINEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

12 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

13 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

16 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

18 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

19 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

21 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978
Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

23 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982
Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

24 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968
Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7(4):641-645.

25 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986
Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

26 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971
Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34(5):214-216.

27 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994
The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

28 LOWRY JB, 1968
The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

29 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976
Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

30 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987
Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

31 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965
Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4(6):989-992.

32 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

33 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985
Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

34 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994
Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

35 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984
Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

36 LUTTERODT GD, 1989
Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

37 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982
Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

38 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987
Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

39 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974
Triterpenoids of the leaves of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13(9):2015-2016.

40 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975
Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

41 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

42 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

43 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, Cuba.

44 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

45 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999
Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

46 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

47 WEI-WEI ZHANG, YAN LI, XUE-QING WANG, FENG TIAN, HONG CAO, MIN-WEI WANG, QI-SHI SUN, 2005
Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

48 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

49 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la corteza del tallo fresco Psidium guajava L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

50 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la hojas frescas Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

51 BIRDI T, DASWANI P, BRIJESH S, TETALI P, NATU A, ANTIA1 N, 2010
Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10:33 www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/33

52 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

53 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

54 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999
Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

55 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990
Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

56 LUTTERODT G, 1992
Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

57 OJEWOLE JA, AWE EO, CHIWORORO WD, 2008
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents. J Smooth Muscle Res 44(6):195-207.

58 WEI L, LI Z, CHEN B, 2000
Clinical study on treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis with Psidium guajava L. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 20(12):893-895.

59 LOZOYA X, REYES H, CHAVEZ MA, MARTINEZ MC, SOTO Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002
Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83(1-2):19-24.

60 ABDELRAHIM SI, ALMAGBOUL AZ, OMER ME, ELEGAMI A, 2002
Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715.

61 TONA L, KAMBU K, NGIMBI N, MESIA K, PENGE O, LUSAKIBANZA M, CIMANGA K, DE BRUYNE T, APERS S, TOTTE J, PIETERS L, VLIETINCK AJ, 2000
Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

62 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

63 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000
Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

64 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

65 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

66 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

67 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

68 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 PEREZ GUTIERREZ RM, MITCHELL S, VARGAS SOLIS R, 2008
Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 117(1):1-27.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Guadeloupe:

  • goyav
  • goyav
  • gwayav
  • gwayav

Dominica:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Haiti:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • guava

Grenada:

  • guava

Venezuela:

  • guayaba

Colombia:

  • guayaba

Guatemala:

  • guayaba

Panama:

  • guayaba

Mexico:

  • guayaba

Dominican Republic:

  • guayaba

Honduras:

  • guayabo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, mashed, inhaled2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

8 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

9 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

10 SOLLS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTINEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

12 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

13 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

16 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

18 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

19 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

21 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978
Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

23 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982
Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

24 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968
Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7(4):641-645.

25 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986
Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

26 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971
Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34(5):214-216.

27 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994
The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

28 LOWRY JB, 1968
The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

29 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976
Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

30 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987
Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

31 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965
Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4(6):989-992.

32 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

33 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985
Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

34 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994
Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

35 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984
Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

36 LUTTERODT GD, 1989
Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

37 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982
Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

38 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987
Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

39 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974
Triterpenoids of the leaves of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13(9):2015-2016.

40 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975
Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

41 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

42 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

43 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, Cuba.

44 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

45 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999
Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

46 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

47 WEI-WEI ZHANG, YAN LI, XUE-QING WANG, FENG TIAN, HONG CAO, MIN-WEI WANG, QI-SHI SUN, 2005
Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

48 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

49 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la corteza del tallo fresco Psidium guajava L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

50 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la hojas frescas Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

51 BIRDI T, DASWANI P, BRIJESH S, TETALI P, NATU A, ANTIA1 N, 2010
Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10:33 www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/33

52 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

53 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

54 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999
Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

55 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990
Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

56 LUTTERODT G, 1992
Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

57 OJEWOLE JA, AWE EO, CHIWORORO WD, 2008
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents. J Smooth Muscle Res 44(6):195-207.

58 WEI L, LI Z, CHEN B, 2000
Clinical study on treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis with Psidium guajava L. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 20(12):893-895.

59 LOZOYA X, REYES H, CHAVEZ MA, MARTINEZ MC, SOTO Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002
Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83(1-2):19-24.

60 ABDELRAHIM SI, ALMAGBOUL AZ, OMER ME, ELEGAMI A, 2002
Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715.

61 TONA L, KAMBU K, NGIMBI N, MESIA K, PENGE O, LUSAKIBANZA M, CIMANGA K, DE BRUYNE T, APERS S, TOTTE J, PIETERS L, VLIETINCK AJ, 2000
Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

62 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

63 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000
Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

64 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

65 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

66 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

67 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

68 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 PEREZ GUTIERREZ RM, MITCHELL S, VARGAS SOLIS R, 2008
Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 117(1):1-27.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominica:

  • thyme
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, infusion, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for nervous breakdown (stroke) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or in children under 12 years of age.

Thymus vulgarisis widely used as a spice for human consumption.

For nervous breakdown (stroke):

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1-2 grams of leaves.  Cover pot, leave to settle for 5-10 minutes and filter28.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 KLICK S, HERRMANN K, 1988
Glucosides and glucose esters of hydroxybenzoic acids in plants. Phytochemistry 27(7):2177-2180.

3 SCHULTZ J, HERRMANN K, 1980
Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

4 MIURA K, INAGAKI T, NAKATANI N, 1989
Structure and activity of new deodorant biphenyl compounds from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Chem Pharm Bull 37(7):1816-1819.

5 NAKATANI N, MIURA K, INAGAKI T, 1989
Structure of new deodorant biphenyl compounds from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their activity against methyl mercaptan. Agr Biol Chem 53(5):1375-1381.

6 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, DOMMISSE RA, ESMANS EL, LEMLI JA, 1982
Three methylated flavones from Thymus vulgaris. Phytochemistry 21(10):2581-2583.

7 MIURA K, NAKATANI N, 1989
Antioxidative activity of flavonoids from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Agr Biol Chem 53(11):3043-3045.

8 SAMEJIMA K, KANAZAWA K, ASHIDA H, DANNO GI, 1995
Luteolin: A strong antimutagen against dietary carcinogen, TRP-P-2, in peppermint, sage, and thyme. J Agric Food Chem 43(2):410-414.

9 BARBERAN FAT, FERRERES F, TOMAS F, GUIRADO A, 1986
Electron impact mass spectrometric differentiation of 5,6-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy- and 5,8-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavones. Phytochemistry 25(4):923-925.

10 KRAUSE M, GALENSA R, 1991
Analysis of enantiomeric flavanones in plant extracts by high performance liquid chromatography on a cellulose triacetate based chiral stationary phase. Chromatographia 32(12):69-72.

11 OLECHNOWICZ-STEPHEN W, LAMER-ZARAWSKA E, 1975
Investigation of flavonoid fraction of some crude drugs from the family Labiatae (Herba Serpylli, Herba Thymi, Majoranae, Herba Origani). Herba Pol 21:347-356.

12 MOSSA JS, AL-YAHYA MA, HASSAN M, 1987
Physicochemical characteristics and spectroscopy of the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris growing in Saudi Arabia. Int J Crude Drug Res 25(1):26-34.

13 POPESCU H, 1975
Aetheroleum thymi produced in Romania. Pharmacia (Bucharest) 23:153.

14 KARAWYA M, HIFNAWY M, 1974
Analytical study of the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris L. growing in Egypt. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 57:997.

15 VAMPA G, ALBASINI A, PROVVISIONATO A, BIANCHI A, MELEGARI M, 1988
Chemical and microbiological studies on the essential oil of Thymus. Plant Med Phytother 22(3):195-202.

16 POULOSE A, CROTEAU R, 1978
Biosynthesis of aromatic monoterpenes: conversion of gamma-terpinene to p-cymene and thymol in Thymus vulgaris. Arch Biochem Biophys 187(2):307-314.

17 HASSAN M, AL-YAHYA M, MOSSA J, 1985
PMR determination of the major constituents of the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris growing in Saudi Arabia (conference). Chapel Hill, USA: Internat Res Cong Nat Prod, Coll Pharm Univ N Carolina, Abstr. nº145.

18 BLAQUE G, 1923
Thymol plants. Bull Sci Pharmacol 30:201-211.

19 ZANI F, MASSIMO G, BENVENUTI S, BIANCHI A, ALBASINI A, Melegari M, Vampa G, Bellotti A, Mazza P, 1991
Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. Planta Med 57(3):237-241.

20 OLSZOWSKA O, FURMANOWA M, 1987
Micropropagation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) from nodal segments. Herba Pol 33(2):137-144.

21 FARNLOF A, 1992
Natural drugs. Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Health Food Council.

22 ANON, 2002
Monografia Thymi herba 2002
Pharmacopee Européene, 4 ed. Strasbourg, France: Conseil de l'Europe.

23 DUKE JA, 1985
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

24 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, LEMLI JA, 1981
Pharmacological and chemical investigation of thyme liquid extracts. Planta Med 41(2):129-135.

25 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, LEMLI JA, 1983
Spasmolytic activity of the flavonoids from Thymus vulgaris. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 25(5):9-14.

26 VAN DEN BROUCKE CO, 1980
Chemical and pharmacological investigation on thymi herba and its liquid extracts. Planta Med 39:253-254.

27 WESLEY-HADZIJA B, BOHING P, 1956
Influence of some essential oils on the central nervous system of fish. Ann Pharm Fr 14:283.

28 ROCKWELL P, RAW J, 1979
A mutagenic screening of various herbs, spices, and food additives. Nutr Cancer 1:10-15.

29 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982
Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

30 HAROUN EM, MAHMOUD OM, ADAM SE, 2002
Effect of feeding Cuminum cyminum fruits, Thymus vulgaris leaves or their

mixture to rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 44(2):67-69

31 LESLIE GB, SALMON G, 1979
Repeated dose toxicity studies and reproductive studies on nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Swiss Med 1(1/2):1-3.

32 Code of Federal Regulations, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

33 TYLER V, BRADY L, ROBBERS J, 1988
Pharmacognosy. Philadelphia, USA: Lea & Febiger, p127-128.

34 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Thymus vulgaris Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 20, 2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

35 WHO, 1999
Herba Thymi. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Feb. 28, 2003, URL: www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/pdf/p262