earache

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • ail
  • lay

Guatemala:

  • ajo

Dominican Republic:

  • ajo

Barbados:

  • garlic

Haiti:

  • lay

Saint Lucia:

  • lay
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  bulb, crushed, poultice, applied locally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

Use for “bad blood” is a traditional cultural use of our communities and is not classified in the TRAMIL Program.

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence, and intestinal parasites is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and published scientific information.

Use for toothaches, earaches, and fever is classified as REC, based on significant traditional uses (OMS/WHO)7 documented by TRAMIL surveys.

The bulb can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum.  If the patient’s condition worsens or if the earache persists for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Contraindicated for use in hyperthyroidism8. The extracts from garlic interact with anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatments.

The bulb of Allium sativum is widely used for human consumption.

The garlic bulb for medicinal purposes should be taken together with meals, so as to prevent gastro-intestinal problems71.

For fever, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence and intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 2 to 5 grams of fresh garlic71 (1 to 2.5 cloves) or 2 to 4 grams of dried garlic71 in 1 cup of water (250 mL), boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For other forms of administration of garlic bulb, the daily consumption doses recommended by OMS71 are: for oil: 2 to 5 mg; for extracts, 300 to 1000 mg (as solid material).  Other type of pharmaceutical preparations should meet alliine values of 4-12 mg or allicine values of 2-5 mg71.

For treatment of skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, toothache, and earache:

2 to 5 g (1 to 2.5 cloves) of peeled fresh garlic; wash thoroughly and crush, then apply to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d’Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

6 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

7 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

8 NATURAL STANDARD, 2010
Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Foods, Herbs & Supplements. www.naturalstandard.com/monographs/herbssupplements/garlic. Last updated 5/17/2010.

9 GRUENWALD J, BRENDLER T, JAENICKE C, 2004
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 988pp.

10 BRINKER FND, 2001
Herb contraindications and drug interactions. 3° edition. Sandy, Oregon, USA: Eclectic Medical Publications.

11 ARTECHI A (Ed.), 1998
Fitoterapia Vademécum de prescripción de Plantas Medicinales. Barcelona, España: Masson. p63.

12 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas et farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. ISIS S.R.L. p208.

13 QUILEZ AM, GARCÍA D, SÁENZ T, 2009
Uso racional de medicamentos a base de plantas. Guía de interacciones entre fitomedicamentos et fármacos de síntesis. Sevilla, España: 1a Edición Fundación Farmacéutica Avenzoar.

14 MEDLINE PLUS, 2009
Ajo (Allium sativum L.). Biblioteca Nacional de Medecina de EE.UU et los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud. URL: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/patient-garlic.htm….

15 CAPORASO N, SMITH S, ENG R, 1983
Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic. Antimicob Agents Chemother 23(5):700-702.

16 PISCITELLI SC, BURSTEIN AH, WELDEN N, GALLICANO KD, FALLOON J, 2002
The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clinical infectious diseases 34(2):234-238.

17 GALLICANO K, FOSTER B, CHOUDHRI S, 2003
Effect of short-term administration of garlic supplements on single-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. British J of Clinical Pharmacology 55(2):199-202.

18 MARKOWITZ JS, DEVANE CL, CHAVIN KD, TAYLOR RM, RUAN Y, DONOVAN JL, 2003
Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 74(2):170-177.

19 AL-NAGDY SA, ABDEL-RAHMAN MO, HEIBA HI, 1988
Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 2:4196-4197.

20 ROLLERI F, 1943
Occurrence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in curative plants. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 281:118.

21 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p13.

22 DR. DUKE’S PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASES, 2009
www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

23 KOCH HP, JAGER W, GROH U, HOVIE JE, PLANK G, SEDLAK U, PRAZNIK W, 1993
Carbohydrates from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) as inhibitors of adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Phytother Res 7(5):387-389.

24 BAUMGARTNER S, DAX TG, PRAZNIK W, FALK H, 2000
Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Carbohydr Res 328(2):177-183.

25 RAKHIMBAEV IR, OL’SHANSKAYA RV, 1981
Preliminary identification of natural gibberellins of garlic. Izv Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr Ser Biol 2:17-22.

26 INAGAKI M, HARADA Y, YAMADA K, ISOBE R, HIGUCHI R, MATSUURA H, ITAKURA Y, 1998
Isolation and structure determination of cerebrosides from garlic, the bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 46(7):1153-1156.

27 SENDL A, ELBL G, STEINKE B, REDL K, BREU W, WAGNER H, 1992
Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 58(1):1-7.

28 MOCHIZUKI E, YAMAMOTO T, KOMIYAMA Y, NAKAZAWA H, 1998
Identification of Allium products using flame photometric detection gas chromatography and distribution patterns of volatile sulfur compounds. J Agr Food Chem 46(12):5170-5176.

29 UEDA Y, SAKAGUCHI M, HIRAYAMA K, MIYAJIMA R, KIMIZUKA A, 1990
Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agr Biol Chem 54(1):163-169.

30 LAWSON LD, WOOD SG, HUGHES BG, 1991
hplc analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med 57(3):263-270.

31 MUTSCH-ECKNER M, ERDELMEIER CAJ, STICHER O, REUTER HD, 1993
A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum. J Nat Prod 56(6):864-869.

32 PENG JP, CHEN H, QIAO YQ, MA LR, NARUI T, SUZUKI H, OKUYAMA T, KOBAYASHI H, 1996
Two new steroidal saponins from Allium sativum and their inhibitory effects on blood coagulability. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31(8):607-612.

33 MATSUURA H, USHIROGUCHI T, ITAKURA Y, FUWA T, 1989
Further studies on steroidal glycosides from bulbs, roots and leaves of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 37(10):2741-2743.

34 VICTORIA MdC, MORÓN FJ, MARTÍNEZ I, BRITO G, FUENTES V, 2011
Efecto antipirético de la decocción 30% de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum (ajo) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

35 SHARMA V, SETHI M, KUMAR A, RAROTRA JR, 1977
Antibacterial property of Allium sativum in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol 15:466.

36 SHAMS M, SHOKOOHAMIRI MR, AMIRRAJAB N, MOGHADASI B, GHAJARI A, ZEINI F, SADEGHI G, RAZZAGHI M, 2006
In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes. Fitoterapia 77:321-323.

37 MOLINA NM, 1992
Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Allium sativum. Evaluación preclínica, farmacológica et toxicológica (Tesis de graduación). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

38 EL-TANBOULY ND, ABDEL-MEGID RM, 1994
HPLC determination of alliin in garlic and garlic products and their antimicrobal activity. Zagazig J Pharm Sci 3(3A):120-124.

39 CÁCERES A, GIRÓN LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

40 KABELIK J, 1970
Antimicrobial properties of garlic. Pharmazie 25(4):266-270.

41 ADETUMBI M, JAVOR GT, LAU BH, 1986
Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30(3):499-501.

42 APPLETON JA, TANSEY MR, 1975
Inhibition of growth of zoopathogenic fungi by garlic extract. Mycologia 67:882-885.

43 PLODDEE A, PALAKORNKOL R, 1977
Antifungal activity of garlic. Undergraduate Special Project Report 1977:23.

44 DELAHA EC, GARAGUSI VF, 1985
Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum ). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 27(4):485-486.

45 FERNÁNDEZ EJ, 1995
Efecto de dos formulaciones hidroalcohólicas de Allium sativum en el tratamiento de patients con dermatofitosis (Tesis de especialidad en farmacología). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

46 PRASAD G, SHARMA VD, RAO VN, KUMAR A, 1983
Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) treatment against dermatophytosis in man and animals. Indian Vet Med J 7(3):161-163.

47 MARTÍNEZ CROVETTO R, 1981
Plantas utilizadas en medicina en el Noroeste de Corrientes. Miscelanea (Fund Miguel Lillo) 69:7-139.

48 ABDEL-GHAFFAR F, SEMMLER M, AL-RASHEID KA, STRASSEN B, FISCHER K, AKSU G, KLIMPEL S, MEHLHORN H, 2011
The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes. Parasitol Res 108(4):979-984.

49 SOFFAR SA, MOKHTAR GM, 1991
Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in Hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 21(2):497-502.

50 NAHED HA, HODA AT, YOMNA IM, 2009
Effects of garlic on albino mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni: a parasitological and ultrastructural study. Trop Biomed 26(1):40-50.

51 GAAFAR MR, 2012
Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against experimental cryptosporidiosis, Alexandria J of Medicine 48:59–66.

52 DAMRAU F, FERGUSON E, 1949
The modus vivendi of carminative. The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rev Med J 2:757-758.

53 DEBLASI V, DEBROT S, MENOUD A, GENDRE L, SCHOWING J, 1990
Amoebicidal effect of essential oils in vitro. J Toxicol Clin Exp 10:361-373.

54 MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

55 MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de bulbo de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961
Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

57 BOJS G, SVENSSON A, 1988
Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Derm 18(3):179-181.

58 PAPAGEORGION C, CORBET JP, BRANDAO FM, PECEGUEIRO M, BENEZIA C, 1983.
Allergic contact dermatitis to Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Identification of the allergens: the role of mono-di and trisulfides present in garlic. A comparative study in man and animal (guinea pig). Arch Dermatol Res 275(4):229-234.

59 KANEZAWA A, NAKAGAWA S, SUMIYOSHI H, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, DATE S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, FUWA T, 1984
General toxicity tests of garlic extract preparation contained vitamins (Kyoleopin). Pharmacometrics 27(5):909-929.

60 SUMIYOSHI H, KANEZAWA A, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, NAKAGAWA S, 1984
Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats. J Toxicol Sci 9(1):61-75.

61 AL-BEKAIRI AM, SHAH AH, QURESHI S, 1990
Effect of Allium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 29(2):117-125.

62 HUH K, PARK JM, LEE S-IL, 1985
Effect of garlic on the therapeutic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat. Arch Pharm Res 8(4):197-203.

63 SITPRIJA S, PLENGVIDHYA C, KANGKAYA V, BHUVAPANICH S, TUNKAYOON M, 1987
Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase III clinical trial. J Med Assoc 70(2):223-227.

64 MC CRINDLE BW, HELDEN E, CONNER WT, 1998
Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 152(11):1089-1094.

65 CHUTANI SK, BORDIA A, 1981
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Therosclerosis 38:417-421.

66 SHARAF A, 1969
Food plant as a possible factor in fertility contrôle. Qual Plant MaterVeg 17:153.

67 CHAUHAN LS, GARG J, BEDI HK, GUPTA RC, BOMB BS, AGARWAL MP, 1982
Effect of onion, garlic and clofibrate on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of blood in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Med J 76(10):126-127.

68 WHO, 2004
Allium sativum. WHO Monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Bulbis Alii Sativi. Ginebra, Suiza, Oct.28,2004. URL: www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/monograph_volume_one…

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

French Guiana:

  • citron
  • citron vert

Panama:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Venezuela:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Colombia:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Puerto Rico:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Honduras:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • lime

Dominica:

  • lime

Dominican Republic:

  • limón, limón agrio, lima

Martinique:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Guadeloupe:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi
  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè

Saint Martin:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Haiti:

  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit, juice, instillation4

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

4 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

5 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

8 HAY YO, 1998
Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

9 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

10 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

11 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

12 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

13 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

18 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

19 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press. p45.

20 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986
Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

21 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOZA A, VASQUEZ Y, GUPTA MP, 2005Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. var. mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

24 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

25 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

26 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

27 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

28 ADESINA S, 1982
Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

29 GUPTA M, 1987
Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México: Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

31 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

37 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009
Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989
Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

40 PELLECUER J, 1995
Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • higüero, güira
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  heated leaf, juice, in instillation1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for earache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (WHO)2 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved with earache, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of ear secretions and /or possible tympanum perforation.

When applied to the ear, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the earache last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit should not be ingested due to TOXICITY and abortion risk.

For earache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 JOSEPH H, BOURGEOIS P, 1989
Contribution à la connaissance de Crescentia cujete L. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

3 ZWAVING J, 1986
Selección fitoquímica preliminar en algunas plantas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Farmacognosia, Universidad de Groningen, Groningen, Nederland.

4 AGARWAL K, POPLI SP, 1992
The constituents of Crescentia cujete leaves. Fitoterapia 63(5):476.

5 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437.

6 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986
Antimicrobial activity of 10 Caribbean species. TRAMIL inform. Dep. of Pharmacognosy, University of Leyden, Leyden, Nederland.

7 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. CIFLORPAN, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

8 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

9 CONTRERAS A, ZOLLA C, 1982
Plantas tóxicas de México. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México DF, México.

10 LOPEZ M, GARCIA AI, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, MORON F, 2012
Ausencia de irritabilidad dérmica primaria sobre piel sana y dañada del zumo de la hoja fresca calentada de Cresencia crujete. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de C. Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana.

11 CACERES A, Ed., 2005
Vademecum de plantas de uso medicinal en Guatemala. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • anni

Dominican Republic:

  • hinojo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, juice, drops (instillation) in the ear1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach pain, abdominal pain and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for earache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Due to the potential health risks associated with earache, and to determine whether it is caused by middle and/or inner ear infection, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  Its use is contraindicated if symptoms such as ear secretions and/or evidence of perforation of the tympanic membrane are present.

Before any application in the ear, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or further infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should earache last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The seed can cause hypersensitivity and allergic reactions.

The leaf of Foeniculum vulgare is widely used for human consumption and the seed is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach pain, abdominal pain and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 0.3-0.6 grams of dried seed or 3-5 grams of fresh leaves in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot, filter, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day24-25.

For earache:

There is no available information for establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963
Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics & their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

4 AKUNZEMANN J, HERRMANN K, 1977
Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavone-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 164:194-200.

5 HARANATH P, AKTHER M, SHARIF S, 1987
Acetylcholine and choline in common spices. Phytother Res 1(2):91-92.

6 ZOBEL A, BROWN S, 1991
Psoralens on the surface of seeds of Rutaceae and fruits of Umbelliferae and Leguminosae. Can J Bot 69(3):485-488.

7 CESKA O, CHAUDHARY S, WARRINGTON P, ASHWOOD-SMITH M, 1987
Photoactive furocoumarins in fruits of some Umbellifers. Phytochemistry 26(1):165-169.

8 MENDEZ J, CASTRO-POCEIRO J, 1981
Coumarins in Foeniculum vulgare fruits. Rev Latinoamer Quim 12(2):91-92.

9 SALEH N, EL-NEGOUMY S, EL-HADIDI M, HOSNI H, 1983
Comparative study of the flavonoids of some local members of the Umbelliferae. Phytochemistry 22(6):1417-1420.

10 LATTANZIO V, MARCHESINI A, 1981
Determination of plant phenols by gel filtration. J Food Sci 46(6):1907-1909.

11 HARBONE J, BOARDLEY M, 1984
Use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the separation of flavonol glycosides and flavonol sulphates. J Chromatogr 299(2):377-385.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p75.

13 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

14 MALINI T, VANITHAKUMARI G, MEGALA N, ANUSYA S, DEVI K, ELANGO V, 1985
Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 29(1):21-26.

15 MASCOLO N, AUTORE G, CAPASSO F, MENGHINI A, FASULO MP, 1987
Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytother Res 1(1):28-31.

16 DUKE JA, 1988
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

18 ALBERT PULEO M, 1980
Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. J Ethnopharmacol 2(4):337-344.

19 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990
Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

20 ALFONSO H, 1992
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill y Cassia occidentalis L. en cobayos. Informe tramil. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal CENSA, La Habana, Cuba.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria del zumo de hojas frescas machacadas y exprimidas mediante gasa de Foeniculum vulgaris Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Foeniculum vulgare Miller. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

23 SHAH A, QURESHI S, AGEEL A, 1991
Toxicity studies in mice of ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare fruit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts. J Ethnopharmacol 34(2/3):167-172.

24 HUSSAIN RA, POVEDA LJ, PEZZUTO JM, SOEJARTO DD, KINGHORN AD, 1990
Sweetening agents of plant origin: phenylpropanoid constituents of seven sweet-tasting plants. Econ Bot 44(2):174-182.

25 SEETHARAM K, PASRICHA J, 1987
Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

26 ASSOCIATION SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE, 1983
British herbal pharmacopœia. Bournemouth, England: British Herbal Medicine Association.

27 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • albahaca

Dominica:

  • basilik
  • fon bazin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  pellet of mashed leaf, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach pain and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Use for earache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)3 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved with earache, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  Use is contraindicated when there are secretions through the ear and / or eventual tympanum perforation.

For application in the ear, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should earache or vomiting last more than 2 days or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Ocimum basilicum is widely used for human consumption.

For stomach pain and vomiting:

Prepare an infusion: add 500 mL (2 cups) of boiling water to 5-7 grams (2 spoonfuls) of fresh leaf.  Cover pot, leave to settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.  Drink 1 cup 3 times per day, or as needed depending on symptomatic condition24.

For earache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 BUCH JG, DIKSHIT RK, MANSURI SM, 1988
Effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa. Indian J Med Res 87(4):361-363.

4 RODRIGUES R, ODETE L, 1991
Composition of the Ocimum basilicum oil. Bol Fac Farm Coimbra 15(1):47-51.

5 SKALTSA H, PHILIANOS S, 1990
Contribution to the chemical study of Ocimum basilicum L.: 2nd communication. Plant Med Phytother 24(3):193-196.

6 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p114.

7 QUEIROZ I, REIS S, 1989
Antispasmodic and analgesic effects of some medicinal plants (conference). Brasil: Simpósio Brasil-China de Química e Farmacologia de Produtos Naturais, Abstr. Nº 180.

8 AKHTAR MS, MUNIR M, 1989
Evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effects of Solanum nigrum, Brassica oleracea and Ocimum basilicum in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1/2):163-176.

9 AKHTAR MS, AKHTAR AH, KHAN MA, 1992
Antiulcerogenic effects of Ocimum basilicum extracts, volatile oils and flavonoid glycosides in albino rats. Int J Pharmacog 30(2):97-104.

10 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de Fitomedicina bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Ed. ISIS ediciones
SRL. Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp:217-222.

11 CACERES A, 1995
Plantas de uso medicinal en Guatemala. Ed. Universitaria. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Guatemala, pp:67-70.

12 DUBE S, UPADHYAY PD, TRIPATHI SC, 1989
Antifungal, physicochemical, and insect-repelling activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum. Can J Bot 67(7):2085-2087.

13 JANSSEN AM, CHIN NL, SCHEFFER JJ, BAERHEIM A, 1986
Screening for antimicrobial activity of some essential oils by the agar overlay technique. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 8(6):289-292.

14 DIKSHIT A, HUSAIN A, 1984
Antifungal action of some essential oils against animal pathogens. Fitoterapia 55(3):171-176.

15 EL KELTAWI NEM, MEGALLA SE, ROSS S, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

16 MARUZZELLA JC, SCRANDIS DA, SCRANDIS JB, GRABON G, 1960
Action of odoriferous organic chemicals and essential oils on wood-destroying fungi. Plant Dis Rept 44:789-792.

17 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

18 REITER M, BRANDT W, 1985
Relaxant effects of terpenoid on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneim-Forsch 35(1):408-414.

19 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de partes aéreas frescas de Ocimum basilicum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

20 HUSSAIN RA, POVEDA LJ, PEZZUTO JM, SOEJARTO DD, KINGHORN AD, 1990
Sweetening agents of plant origin: Phenylpropanoid constituents of seven sweet-tasting plants. Econ Bot 44(2):174-182.

21 GARCIA A, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, PILOTO J, 2000
Estudio toxicogenético de un extracto fluido de Ocimun basilicum L. (albahaca blanca). Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(3):78-83.

22 LOGARTO A, SILVA R, GUERRA I, IGLESIAS L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

23 DUKE JA, 1985
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

24 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.). Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

25 POUSSET J, 1989
Plantes médicinales africaines. Tome I. Paris, France: ACCT.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, instilled in ear4

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html