abdominal pain

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • anis
  • lanni

Dominican Republic:

  • hinojo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed, decoction, taken orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

For both uses, it is mainly described in association with Eupatorium aromatizans, Lippia micromera or salt.

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain, flatulence and stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Not for use in women intending to procreate, during pregnancy, during lactation or in children under 5 years old.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abdominal or stomach pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The aerial parts ofAnethum graveolens are widely used as a spice.

For abdominal pain, flatulence and stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15-30 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of seed in one liter (4 cups) of water; boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot.  Filter and take one cup after meals24.

 

1 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 DANIEL M, 1989
Polyphenols of some Indian vegetables. Curr Sci 58(23):1332-1334.

4 VARNAITE R, 1988
Rutin content in capsicum, capsella, urtica, primula, lepidium, lactuca, brassica, anethum, beta, petroselinum, Allium genera representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C 4:29-32.

5 DRANIK LI, PROKOPENKO AP, 1969
Coumarins and acids from Anethum graveolens fruit. Khim Prir Soedin 55:437.

6 APLIN RT, PAGE CB, 1967
Constituents of native Umbelliferae. I. Coumarins from dill (Anethum graveolens). J Chem Soc C 23:2593-2596.

7 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p17.

8 HOSSEINZADEH H, KARIMI GR, AMERI M, 2002
Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice. BMC Pharmacol 2: 21.

9 IKRAM M, HAQ I, 1980
Screening of medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. Fitoterapia 51:281-284.

10 SHIPOCHLIEV T, 1968
Pharmacological investigations into several essential oils, first communication. Effect on the smooth musculature. Vet Med Nauki 5(6):63-69.

11 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

12 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologicaly active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2000
Anethum graveolens. Physician Desk Reference (PDR) for Herbal Medicines, Montvale, USA: Medical Economics Company. p 252.

14 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PÉREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RÍOS JL, MORÁLES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Anethum graveolens. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

15 MARTÍNEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LÓPEZ M, MOREJÓN Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORÓN F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica y clases tóxicas agudas de semilla seca de Anethum graveolens. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

16 NATAQUE K, KANZAWA K, MIZUNO M, UENO N, KOBAYASHI T, DANNE GI, MINAMOTO S, 1989
Herb water-extracts markedly suppress the mutagenicity of TRP-P-2. Agr Biol Chem 53(5):1423-1425.

17 NATH D, SETHI N, SINGH RK, JAIN AK, 1992
Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 36(2):147-154.

18 SETHI N, NATH D, SINGH RK, 1989
Teratological evaluation of some commonly used indigenous antifertility plants in rats. Int J Crude Drugs Res 27(2):118-120.

19 FUKUOKA M, YOSHIHIRA K, NATORI S, SAKAMOTO K, IWAHARA S, HOSAKA S, IRONO I, 1980
Characterization of mutagenic principle and carcinogenicity test of dill weed and seeds. J Pharmacobio Dyn 3(5):236-244.

20 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. pp87,122.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • valeriana

Honduras:

  • valeriana

Haiti:

  • vetivè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982
Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21(3):793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997
New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996
New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989
Extraction of khusimol and other components from Vetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CÁCERES A, GONZÁLEZ S, GIRÓN L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996
Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958
Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 HIRUMA-LIMA CA, SOUZA BRITO AR, 2002
Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982
Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • valeriana

Honduras:

  • valeriana

Haiti:

  • vetivè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982
Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21(3):793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997
New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996
New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989
Extraction of khusimol and other components from Vetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CÁCERES A, GONZÁLEZ S, GIRÓN L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996
Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958
Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 HIRUMA-LIMA CA, SOUZA BRITO AR, 2002
Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982
Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • anni

Dominican Republic:

  • hinojo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed and/or leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach pain, abdominal pain and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for earache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Due to the potential health risks associated with earache, and to determine whether it is caused by middle and/or inner ear infection, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  Its use is contraindicated if symptoms such as ear secretions and/or evidence of perforation of the tympanic membrane are present.

Before any application in the ear, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or further infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should earache last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The seed can cause hypersensitivity and allergic reactions.

The leaf of Foeniculum vulgare is widely used for human consumption and the seed is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach pain, abdominal pain and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 0.3-0.6 grams of dried seed or 3-5 grams of fresh leaves in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot, filter, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day24-25.

For earache:

There is no available information for establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963
Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics & their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

4 AKUNZEMANN J, HERRMANN K, 1977
Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavone-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 164:194-200.

5 HARANATH P, AKTHER M, SHARIF S, 1987
Acetylcholine and choline in common spices. Phytother Res 1(2):91-92.

6 ZOBEL A, BROWN S, 1991
Psoralens on the surface of seeds of Rutaceae and fruits of Umbelliferae and Leguminosae. Can J Bot 69(3):485-488.

7 CESKA O, CHAUDHARY S, WARRINGTON P, ASHWOOD-SMITH M, 1987
Photoactive furocoumarins in fruits of some Umbellifers. Phytochemistry 26(1):165-169.

8 MENDEZ J, CASTRO-POCEIRO J, 1981
Coumarins in Foeniculum vulgare fruits. Rev Latinoamer Quim 12(2):91-92.

9 SALEH N, EL-NEGOUMY S, EL-HADIDI M, HOSNI H, 1983
Comparative study of the flavonoids of some local members of the Umbelliferae. Phytochemistry 22(6):1417-1420.

10 LATTANZIO V, MARCHESINI A, 1981
Determination of plant phenols by gel filtration. J Food Sci 46(6):1907-1909.

11 HARBONE J, BOARDLEY M, 1984
Use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the separation of flavonol glycosides and flavonol sulphates. J Chromatogr 299(2):377-385.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p75.

13 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

14 MALINI T, VANITHAKUMARI G, MEGALA N, ANUSYA S, DEVI K, ELANGO V, 1985
Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 29(1):21-26.

15 MASCOLO N, AUTORE G, CAPASSO F, MENGHINI A, FASULO MP, 1987
Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytother Res 1(1):28-31.

16 DUKE JA, 1988
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

18 ALBERT PULEO M, 1980
Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. J Ethnopharmacol 2(4):337-344.

19 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990
Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

20 ALFONSO H, 1992
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill y Cassia occidentalis L. en cobayos. Informe tramil. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal CENSA, La Habana, Cuba.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria del zumo de hojas frescas machacadas y exprimidas mediante gasa de Foeniculum vulgaris Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Foeniculum vulgare Miller. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

23 SHAH A, QURESHI S, AGEEL A, 1991
Toxicity studies in mice of ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare fruit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts. J Ethnopharmacol 34(2/3):167-172.

24 HUSSAIN RA, POVEDA LJ, PEZZUTO JM, SOEJARTO DD, KINGHORN AD, 1990
Sweetening agents of plant origin: phenylpropanoid constituents of seven sweet-tasting plants. Econ Bot 44(2):174-182.

25 SEETHARAM K, PASRICHA J, 1987
Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

26 ASSOCIATION SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE, 1983
British herbal pharmacopœia. Bournemouth, England: British Herbal Medicine Association.

27 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • albahaca vaca

Haiti:

  • atiyayo
  • gwo fonbazen

Guatemala:

  • basen

Saint Lucia:

  • vanne van
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction with salt, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain and flatulence, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should abdominal pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for torsalo (myiasis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum are widely used for human consumption.

For abdominal pain and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  In case of decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot (possibly, with a pinch of salt).  For infusion, add boiling water to the leaves, cover and leave to cool.  Filter and drink 1 cup 3 times per day.

For abdominal pain, there is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage regarding the leaf juice other than that referred to by traditional use.

For torsalo (myiasis):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

4 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 ZAMUREENKO VA, TOKAREVA VY, KLYUEV NA, KARPOVA TI, GRANDBERG TI, 1981
Identification of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum L. Izv Timiryazevsk S-Kh Akad 1981(4):153-155.

7 NTEZURUBANZA L, SCHEFFER JJC, BAERHEIM-SVENDSEN A, 1987
Composition of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum grown in Rwanda. Planta Med 53(5):421-423.

8 ARCTANDER S, 1960
Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. Elizabeth, USA: Stephen Arctander.

9 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

10 MAIA JGS, RAMOS LS, LUZ AIR, DA SILVA ML, ZOGHBI MG, 1988
Uncommon Brazilian essential oils of the Labiatae and Compositae. In: Flavors and fragrance: a world perspective, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Essential Oils. Lawrence BM, Mookherjee BD, Willis BJ, Eds. New York, USA: Elsevier Sci Publ. pp:177-188.

11 JANSSEN AM, SCHEFFER JJC, NTEZURUBANZA L, SVENDSEN AB, 1989
Antimicrobial activities of some Ocimum species grown in Rwanda. J Ethnopharmacol 26(1):57-63.

12 NIGAM M, KHOSLA MK, BRADU BL, TANDON N, 1988
Hydration of terpene fraction of "clocimum" oil and isolation of pure myrcene. Parfume Kosmet 69(5):285-286.

13 OFFIAH VN, CHIKWENDU UA, 1999
Antidiarrhoeal effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol 68(1-3):327-330.

14 AZIBA PI, BASS D, ELEGBE Y, 1999
Pharmacological investigation of Ocimum gratissimum in rodents. Phytother Res 13(5):427-429.

15 NJOKU CJ, ASUZU IU, 1998
The anthelmintic effects of the leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.). Phytomedicine 5(6):485-488.

16 MADEIRA SV, MATOS FJ, LEAL-CARDOSO JH, CRIDDLE DN, 2002
Relaxant effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on isolated ileum of the guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 81(1):1-4.

17 ORAFIDIYA LO, AGBANI EO, OYEDELE AO, BABALOLA OO, ONAYEMI O, 2002
Preliminary clinical tests on topical preparations of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf essential oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clinical Drug Investigation 22(5):313-319.

18 ORAFIDIYA LO, AGBANI EO, ABEREOJE OA, AWE T, ABUDU A, FAKOYA FA, 2003
An investigation into the wound-healing properties of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. J Wound Care 12(9):331-334.

19 PEREIRA SL, DE OLIVEIRA JW, ANGELO KK, DA COSTA AM, COSTA F, 2011
Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum on plaque and gingivitis control. J Contemp Dent Pract 12(5):350-355.

20 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. White House Station, New Jersey, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p1676.

21 ONAJOBI FD, 1986
Smooth muscle contracting lipid-soluble principles in chromatographic actions of Ocimum gratissimum. J Ethnopharmacol 18(1):3-11.

22 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) de decocción de hojas frescas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

23 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2002
Clases toxicas agudas de decocción (30%) de hojas frescas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

24 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) de extracto fluido 30% de hojas secas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

25 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de extracto fluido 30% de hojas secas de Ocimum gratisimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 LOGARTO A, SILVA R, GUERRA I, IGLESIAS L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

27 LOGARTO A, TILLAN J, VEGA R, GONZÁLEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(1):26-28.

28 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

29 PILOTO J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCÍA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZÁLEZ ML, RODRÍGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • albahaca vaca

Haiti:

  • atiyayo
  • gwo fonbazen

Guatemala:

  • basen

Saint Lucia:

  • vanne van
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, juice with salt, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain and flatulence, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should abdominal pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for torsalo (myiasis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum are widely used for human consumption.

For abdominal pain and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  In case of decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot (possibly, with a pinch of salt).  For infusion, add boiling water to the leaves, cover and leave to cool.  Filter and drink 1 cup 3 times per day.

For abdominal pain, there is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage regarding the leaf juice other than that referred to by traditional use.

For torsalo (myiasis):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

4 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 ZAMUREENKO VA, TOKAREVA VY, KLYUEV NA, KARPOVA TI, GRANDBERG TI, 1981
Identification of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum L. Izv Timiryazevsk S-Kh Akad 1981(4):153-155.

7 NTEZURUBANZA L, SCHEFFER JJC, BAERHEIM-SVENDSEN A, 1987
Composition of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum grown in Rwanda. Planta Med 53(5):421-423.

8 ARCTANDER S, 1960
Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. Elizabeth, USA: Stephen Arctander.

9 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

10 MAIA JGS, RAMOS LS, LUZ AIR, DA SILVA ML, ZOGHBI MG, 1988
Uncommon Brazilian essential oils of the Labiatae and Compositae. In: Flavors and fragrance: a world perspective, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Essential Oils. Lawrence BM, Mookherjee BD, Willis BJ, Eds. New York, USA: Elsevier Sci Publ. pp:177-188.

11 JANSSEN AM, SCHEFFER JJC, NTEZURUBANZA L, SVENDSEN AB, 1989
Antimicrobial activities of some Ocimum species grown in Rwanda. J Ethnopharmacol 26(1):57-63.

12 NIGAM M, KHOSLA MK, BRADU BL, TANDON N, 1988
Hydration of terpene fraction of "clocimum" oil and isolation of pure myrcene. Parfume Kosmet 69(5):285-286.

13 OFFIAH VN, CHIKWENDU UA, 1999
Antidiarrhoeal effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol 68(1-3):327-330.

14 AZIBA PI, BASS D, ELEGBE Y, 1999
Pharmacological investigation of Ocimum gratissimum in rodents. Phytother Res 13(5):427-429.

15 NJOKU CJ, ASUZU IU, 1998
The anthelmintic effects of the leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.). Phytomedicine 5(6):485-488.

16 MADEIRA SV, MATOS FJ, LEAL-CARDOSO JH, CRIDDLE DN, 2002
Relaxant effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on isolated ileum of the guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 81(1):1-4.

17 ORAFIDIYA LO, AGBANI EO, OYEDELE AO, BABALOLA OO, ONAYEMI O, 2002
Preliminary clinical tests on topical preparations of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf essential oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clinical Drug Investigation 22(5):313-319.

18 ORAFIDIYA LO, AGBANI EO, ABEREOJE OA, AWE T, ABUDU A, FAKOYA FA, 2003
An investigation into the wound-healing properties of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. J Wound Care 12(9):331-334.

19 PEREIRA SL, DE OLIVEIRA JW, ANGELO KK, DA COSTA AM, COSTA F, 2011
Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum on plaque and gingivitis control. J Contemp Dent Pract 12(5):350-355.

20 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. White House Station, New Jersey, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p1676.

21 ONAJOBI FD, 1986
Smooth muscle contracting lipid-soluble principles in chromatographic actions of Ocimum gratissimum. J Ethnopharmacol 18(1):3-11.

22 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) de decocción de hojas frescas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

23 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2002
Clases toxicas agudas de decocción (30%) de hojas frescas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

24 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) de extracto fluido 30% de hojas secas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

25 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de extracto fluido 30% de hojas secas de Ocimum gratisimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 LOGARTO A, SILVA R, GUERRA I, IGLESIAS L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

27 LOGARTO A, TILLAN J, VEGA R, GONZÁLEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(1):26-28.

28 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

29 PILOTO J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCÍA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZÁLEZ ML, RODRÍGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • fey esans jirof
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction with salt, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abdominal pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The leaf and the fruit of Pimenta racemosa var.ozua are used as a spice and tonic appetizer, while the essential oil of the leaf is a relatively widespread disinfectant.

As it is an endemic and scarce species, we recommend harvesting the leaves moderately and fostering its cultivation so as to avoid extirpating the plant in the wild.

For abdominal pain:

Prepare a decoction with 9-23 grams of the leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in an open pot.  Filter, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day6.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d’Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 FERNÁNDEZ A, ÁLVAREZ A, GARCÍA MD, SÁENZ MT, 2001
Anti-inflammatory effect of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua and isolation of the triterpene lupeol. Farmaco 56(4):335-338.

3 TUCKER A, MARICARELLO M, ADAMS R, LANDRUM L, ZANONI T, 1991
Volatile leaf oils of Caribbean Myrtaceae. I. Three varieties of Pimenta racemosa (Miller) J. Moore of the Dominican Republic and the commercial bay oil. J Essent Oil Res 3(5):323-329.

4 HERRERA J, 1988
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

5 CAMBAR P. FLORES E. CANALES M. 1996
Efectos toxicológicos, gástricos, respiratorios y cardiovasculares del extracto acuoso de hojas de Pimenta racemosa ozua, Myrtaceae, en animales de experimentación. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 FERNÁNDEZ A, ÁLVAREZ A, GARCÍA MD, SÁENZ MT, 2004
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Myrtaceae). J Ethnopharm 91(1):69-73.

7 GARCÍA MD, SÁENZ MT, 2004
Toxicidad aguda y sub-crónica de la hoja de Pimenta racemosa var. ozua. Informe TRAMIL. Farmacognosia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • fey esans jirof
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction with salt, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abdominal pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The leaf and the fruit of Pimenta racemosa var.ozua are used as a spice and tonic appetizer, while the essential oil of the leaf is a relatively widespread disinfectant.

As it is an endemic and scarce species, we recommend harvesting the leaves moderately and fostering its cultivation so as to avoid extirpating the plant in the wild.

For abdominal pain:

Prepare a decoction with 9-23 grams of the leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in an open pot.  Filter, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day6.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d’Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 FERNÁNDEZ A, ÁLVAREZ A, GARCÍA MD, SÁENZ MT, 2001
Anti-inflammatory effect of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua and isolation of the triterpene lupeol. Farmaco 56(4):335-338.

3 TUCKER A, MARICARELLO M, ADAMS R, LANDRUM L, ZANONI T, 1991
Volatile leaf oils of Caribbean Myrtaceae. I. Three varieties of Pimenta racemosa (Miller) J. Moore of the Dominican Republic and the commercial bay oil. J Essent Oil Res 3(5):323-329.

4 HERRERA J, 1988
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

5 CAMBAR P. FLORES E. CANALES M. 1996
Efectos toxicológicos, gástricos, respiratorios y cardiovasculares del extracto acuoso de hojas de Pimenta racemosa ozua, Myrtaceae, en animales de experimentación. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 FERNÁNDEZ A, ÁLVAREZ A, GARCÍA MD, SÁENZ MT, 2004
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Myrtaceae). J Ethnopharm 91(1):69-73.

7 GARCÍA MD, SÁENZ MT, 2004
Toxicidad aguda y sub-crónica de la hoja de Pimenta racemosa var. ozua. Informe TRAMIL. Farmacognosia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.