burning

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • bija

Haiti:

  • woukou
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed, crushed, topical application1

seed, crushed, deep-fried in oil (coconut or other), topical application1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented by TRAMIL surveys and available published scientific information.

Traditional use should be limited to non-extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) superficial burns only (epidermal injury), located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.  Preparation should only be used for topical application.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The seed oil taken orally can cause hypersensitivity reactions.

The dried seed of Bixa orellana is widely used as a spice.

TRAMIL Research22

For burns:

Deep-fry 10 grams of crushed seeds in 40 mL of vegetal oil and allow cooling.

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with a dressing or clean cloth.  Replace every 12 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. CIFLORPAN, Universidad de Panamá, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

5 ANGELUCCI E, ARIMA HK, KUMAGAI EA, 1980
Annatto. 1. Preliminary data of the chemical composition. Col Inst Technol Aliments 11:89-96.

6 TIRIMANA ASL, 1981
Study of the carotenoid pigments of Bixa orellana L. seeds by T.L.C. Mikrochim Acta 2:11-16.

7 MERCADANTE AZ, STECK A, PFANDER H, 1997
Isolation and structure elucidation of minor carotenoids from annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds. Phytochemistry 46(8):1379-1383.

8 CRAVEIRO AA, OLIVERIRA CLA, A-RAUJO FWL, 1989
The presence of geranil-geraniol in Bixa orellana Linn. Quim Nova 12(3):297-298.

9 MERCADANTE AZ, STECK A, PFANDER H, 1999
Three minor carotenoids from annatto (Bixa orellana) seeds. Phytochemistry 52(1):135-139.

10 JONDIKO IJO, PATTENDEN G, 1989
Terpenoids and an apocarotenoid from seeds of Bixa orellana. Phytochemistry 28(11):3159-3162.

11 GALINDO-CUSPINERA V, LUBRAN MB, RANKIN SA, 2002
Comparison of volatile compounds in water- and oil-soluble annatto (Bixa orellana L.) extracts. J Agric Food Chem 50:2010-2115.

12 FELICISSIMO MP, BITTENCOURT C, HOUSSIAU L, PIREAUX JJ, 2004
Timeof-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of Bixa orellana seeds. J Agric Food Chem 52:1810-1814.     

13 MERCADANTE AZ, STECK A, PFANDER H, 1997
Isolation and structure elucidation of minor carotenoids from annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds. Phytochemistry 46(8):1379-1383.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p27.

15 LAWRENCE BM, HOGG JW, 1973
Ishwarane in Bixa orellana leaf oil. Phytochem 12:2995.

16 HARBORNE JB, 1975
Flavonoids bisulphates and their co-occurence with ellagic acid in the Bixaceae, Frankeniaceae and related families. Phytochemistry 14(5-6):1331-1337.

17 HUAMÁN O, SANDOVAL M, ARNAO I, BEJAR E, 2009
Efecto antiulceroso del extracto hidroalcohólico liofilizado de hojas de Bixa orellana (achiote), en ratas. An Fac Med 70(2):97-102.

18 RAGA DD, ESPIRITU RA, SHEN CC, RAGASA CY, 2011
A bioactive sesquiterpene from Bixa orellana. J Nat Med 65(1):206-211.

19 CACERES A, SONIA GONZALEZ S, GIRON LM, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Productos Fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya Guatemala, Guatemala.

20 WENIGER B, 1992
Etude sur Bixa orellana. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

21 SERRANO G, SANDBERG F, 1988
Actividad antiinflamatoria de Bixa orellana: Informe preliminar TRAMIL. Universidad de Uppsala, Uppsala, Suecia. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, de las semillas de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 GEORGE M, PETALAI KM, 1949
Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

24 ROJAS JJ, OCHOA VJ, OCAMPO SA, MUÑOZ JF, 2006
Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections. BMC Complement Altern Med 6:2.

25 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, semillas de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 1995
Toxicidad aguda de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Farmacognosia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.

27 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica de semilla seca de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases Tóxicas Agudas tópica de semilla seca de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo de hojas de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAUMGARTTEN FJ, DE-CARVALHO RR, ARAUJO IB, PINTO FM, BORGES OO, SOUZA CA, KURIYAMA SN, 2002
Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of annatto in the rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 40(11):1595-1601.

32 SILVA DELGADO H, DEL AGUILA A, GODOY PEREZ L, PORTOCARRERO P, 1998
Clinical evaluation of Bixa orellana L. achiote in female volunteers. Phase I Study. Biodiversidad Salud 1(1):38-41.

33 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Nicaragua:

  • 'kukus

Dominica:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

Dominican Republic:

  • cocotero

Guatemala:

  • cocotero

Honduras:

  • cocotero
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit oil, cataplasm2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to available information:

Use for asthma, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

There is no information available on this resource for asthmatic crisis.

Use for urinary infections is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, urinary infection or renal stones, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urinary infection symptoms last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use as an orally administered medicine during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

External use for arthritis, flu, burns and nacíos (boils) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)6 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should boils persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research31

For asthma:

Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day.

For urinary ailments:

Drink 250 mL (1 cup) of coconut water 4-6 times a day31.

For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

3 AKER CH, GARMENDIA M, DEVES R, FERNANDEZ P, FRITHZ E, HERNANDEZ M, SIMEON A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Bosawas. Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua UNAN-León, León, Nicaragua.

4 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

7 MOURA FE JA, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975
Unsaponifiable matter of crude and processed coconut oil. J Sci Food Agr 26(4):523-531.

8 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

9 SAITTAGAROON S, KAWAKISHI S, NAMIKI M, 1985
Generation of mannitol from copra meal. J Food Sci 50(3):757-760.

10 TAKEUCHI K, 1961
Amino acids in the endosperm of some Amazonian Palmae. Chiba Daigaku Buurii Gakuba Kiyo Shizen Kagaku 3:321-325.

11 JANSZ BR, JEYARAJ EE, PIERIS N, ABEYRATNE DJ, 1974
Cyanide liberation from linamarin. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 2:57-65.

12 KINDERLERER JL, KELLARD B, 1987
Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut. Chem Ind (London) 16:567-568.

13 MANNAN A, AHMAD K, 1966
Studies on vitamin E in foods of East Pakistan. Pak J Biol Agr Sci 9:13.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

15 CAMBAR P, ALGER J, 1989
Efectos broncopulmonares del aceite de coco en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

16 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del agua de fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

17 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la pulpa tierna del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

18 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005
Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

19 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del aceite del fruto de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 VENKATARAMAN S, RAMANUJAN T, VENKATASUBBU V, 1980
Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shell Cocos nucifera L. J Ethnopharmacol 2(3):291-293.

23 JAIN SK, AGRAWAL SC, 1992
Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 46(1):1-6.

24 CACERES A, GIRON LM, MARTINEZ AM, 1987
Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatments of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol 19(3):233-245.

25 RODRÍGUEZ M, SÁNCHEZ C, 1982
Diuresis del agua de pipa (Cocos nucifera) en ratas. Rev Méd Panamá 7(3):186-19l.

26 KETUSINH O, 1954
Risks associate with intravenous infusion of coconut juice. J Med Ass Thailand 37(5):249-271.

27 MORTON J, 1981
Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. Springfield, USA: III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

28 BOOTH AN, BICKOFF EM, KOHLER GO, 1960
Estrogen-like activity in vegetable oils and mill by-products. Science 131:1807-1808.

29 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso del aceite del fruto de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, de aceite del fruto fresco de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del aceite del fruto puro de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 SALERNO JW, SMITH DE, 1991
The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibiting of human colon cancer growth in vitro. Anticancer Res 11(1):209-215.

34 LOCNISKAR M, BELURY MA, CUMBERLAND AG, PATRICK KE, FISCHER SM, 1991
The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide, comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil. Carcinogenesis 12(6):1023-1028.

35 BERTON TR, FISCHER SM, CONTI CJ, LOCNISKAR MF, 1996
Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil. Nutr Cancer 26(3):353-363.

36 CHINDAVANIG A, 1971
Effect of vegetable oils in plasma cholesterol in man and dog. Master Thesis, Dept. Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

37 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • auyama

Haiti:

  • jiroumou
  • jiwomon
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, juice, applied locally 2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use for jaundice, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved in hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The fruit and the flower of Cucurbita moschata are widely used for human consumption.

For asthenia and weakness

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For jaundice:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams of flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of the decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of flower.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day28.

For burns:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the leaf juice in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

4 WASHUTTL J, Reiderer P, Bancher E, 1973
A qualitative and quantitative study of sugar-alcohols in several foods. J Food Sci 38(7):1262-1263.

5 DUKE JA, 2000
Chemicals and their biological activities in: Cucurbita moschata. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, August 10, 2000. www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl

6 BANG MH, HAN JT, KIM HY, PARK YD, PARK CH, LEE KR, BAEK NI, 2002
13-Hydroxy-9Z,11E,15E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata. Arch Pharm Res 25(4):438-440.

7 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p55.

8 USDA
www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/cgi-bin/nut_search.pl?squash

9 HERRERA J, 1992
Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

10 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, de la hoja de Curcubita moschata. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

11 VILENCHIK M, 1989
Fundamentos biológicos del envejecimiento y la longevidad. Moscú, URSS: Ed. MIR.

12 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

13 WENIGER B, 1992
Cytotoxicité, effets immunodulateurs et morphologique des extraits éthanolique 80% et aqueux de feuille de Cucurbita. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

14 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990
Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea Soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

15 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

16 CHEN ZK, PU TC, LI DY, JIANG HA, 1980
Therapeutic effect of cucurbitine on dog taeniasis. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1(2):124-126.

17 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p226.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • tomat

Guatemala:

  • tomate

Dominican Republic:

  • tomate
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, mashed, cataplasm3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for candidiasis (thrush) in mouth, toothache and burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Traditional use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The leaf should be properly washed and cleaned, and its external indumentum (the covering of hairs on the leaf) should be removed, as it may cause dermatomucosal irritation and reactions of hypersensitivity.

The ripe fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum is widely used for human consumption.

For candidiasis in the mouth and toothache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For burns:

Wash injury with cooled boiled water and soap, apply 8-10 grams of leaf, previously washed, on the affected area.  Cover the injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace every 12 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA PJ, 1996
Biologically active natural products. Annual proceedings of the phytochemical society of Europe. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

5 CATALDI TR, LELARIO F, BUFO SA, 2005
Analysis of tomato glycoalkaloids by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19(21):3103-3110.

6 SCHREIBER K, AURICH O, 1966
Isolation of several alkaloids and 3-beta-hydroxy-5-alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one from Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill. Phytochemistry 5:707-712.

7 YAHARA S, UDA N, NOHARA T, 1996
Lycoperosides A-C, three stereoisomeric 23-acetoxyspirosolan-3-beta-ol beta-lycotetraosides from Lycopersicon esculentum. Phytochemistry 42(1):169-172.

8 DENG C, ZHANG X, ZHU W, QIAN J, 2004
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase microextraction method for determination of methyl salicylate and other volatile compounds in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum. Anal Bioanal Chem 378(2):518-522.

9 ANTONIOUS GF, 2001
Production and quantification of methyl ketones in wild tomato accessions. J Environ Sci Health B 36(6):835-848.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p102.

11 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de las hojas frescas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

12 ANON, 1987
Pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions containing tomato plant extracts for the treatment of skin diseases. Patent-Israëli 78,820.

13 CAVALIN G, 1983
Tomate et tomatine (Thèse Doctorat Pharmacie). Toulouse, France.

14 PAZOS L, COTO T, 2011
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada y piel sana, porción de hojas frescas de Lycopersicon esculentum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

15 ASWAL B, BHAKUNI D, GOEL A, KAR K, MAHROTRA B, MUKHERJEE K, 1984
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

16 DUKE JA, 1988
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 CONTRERAS A, ZOLLA C, 1982
Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • bambou-bananier
  • ben olifère
  • benzoliv
  • graines benné
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed, oil, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Traditional use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The seed of Moringa pterygosperma is widely used for human consumption.

For burns:

Wash the injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the seed oil (cold extraction being the recommended procedure) to the affected area.  Cover the injury with a dressing or clean cloth and replace 2 times a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

3 DELAVEAU P, BOTTEAU P, 1980
Huiles à intérêt pharmacologique, cosmétologique et diététique. IV.- Huiles de Moringa oleifera. Plantes Médicinales and Phytothérapie 14(1):29-33.

4 KHAN FW, GUL P, MALIK MN, 1975
Chemical composition of oil from Moringa oleifera. Pak J For 25(2):100-102.

5 VILLASENOR IM, FINCH P, LIM-SYLIANCO CY, DAYRIT F, 1989
Structure of a mutagen from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Carcinogenesis 10(6):1085-1087.

6 VILLASENOR IM, Lim-Sylianco CY, Dayrit F, 1989
Mutagens from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Mutat Res 224(2):209-212.

7 GUEVARA AP, VARGAS C, SAKURAI H, FUJIWARA Y, HASHIMOTO K, MAOKA T, KOZUKA M, ITO Y, TOKUDA H, NISHINO H, 1999
An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam. Mutat Res 440(2):181-188.

8 VILLASENOR IM, DAYRIT FM, LIM-SYLIANCO CY, 1990
Studies on Moringa oleifera seeds. II. Thermal degradation of roasted seeds. Philippine J Sci 119(1):33-39.

9 BADGETT BL, 1964
Part one: The mustard oil glucoside from Moringa oleifera, seed. Part two: Ascorbic acid analogs with deoxy side chains. Ph.D. thesis. Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.

10 EILERT U, WOLTERS B, NAHRSTEDT A, 1981
Antibiotic principle of seeds of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala. Planta Med 42(1):55-61.

11 DAYRIT FM, ALCANTAR AD, VILLASENOR IM, 1990
Studies on Moringa oleifera seeds. Part I. The antibiotic compound and its deactivation in aqueous solution. Philippine J Sci 119(1):23-32.

12 CACERES A, LOPEZ S, 1991
Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 3: Effect of seed extracts in the treatment of experimental pyodermia. Fitoterapia 62(5):449-450.

13 CACERES A, LOPEZ S, 1992
Informe TRAMIL sobre Moringa pterygosperma. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 CACERES A, SARAVIA A, RIZZO S, ZABALA L, DE LEON E, NAVE F, 1992
Pharmacologic properties of Moringa oleifera. 2: Screening for antispasmodic, antiinflammatory and diuretic activity. J Ethnopharmacol 36(3):233-237.

15 AL AZARIA JAHN S, 1981
Traditional water purification in tropical developing countries. Existing methods and potential application. Eschborn, Germany: Ed GTZ.

16 KERHARO J, 1969
Un remède populaire sénégalais : le "nebreday"(Moringa oleifera Lam). Plantes médicinales et phytothérapie 3:214-219.

17 RAGHUNANDANA R, GEORGE M, 1949
Investigation of plant antibiotics. III. Pterygospermin: The antibacterial principle of Moringa pterygosperma Gaernt. Indian J Med Res 37:159-167.

18 DAS B, KURUP P, NARASIMHA R, 1957
Antibiotic principle of Moringa pterygosperma VII: Antibacterial activity and chemical structure of components related to pterygospermin. Indian J Med Res 45:195-196.

19 KURUP PA, NARASIMIHA RAO PL, 1954
Antibiotic principle from Moringa pterygosperma IV: Effect of addition of vitamins and aminoacids on the antibacterial activity of pterygospermin. Indian J Med Res 42:101-107.

20 LOPEZ M, BOULOGNE I, BACALLAO Y, BRITO G, ACOSTA L, CABRERA H, Moron F, 2012
Recherche d’irritabilité topique sur peau saine et abîmée (selon les méthodes OECD etEPA Acute dermal irritation) de huile et de l’émulsion huileuse de la graine de Moringa oleifera Lam.. Travail TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

21 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet inmunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

22 BERGER MR, HABS M, JAHN SA, SCHMAHL D, 1984
Toxicological assessment of seeds from Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala, two highly efficient primary coagulants for domestic water treatment of tropical raw waters. East Afr Med J 61(9):712-716.

23 GRABOW W, SLABBERT JL, MORGAN WSG, JAHN SAA, 1985
Toxicity and mutagenicity evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seed preparations using fish, protozoa, bacterial, coliphage, enzyme and Ames Salmonella assays. Water SA (Pretoria) 11(1):9-14.

24 INGEL TH, BHIDE BV, 1951
Chemical Investigation of the gum from the drumstick plant Moringa oleifera. Curr Sci 20:107-108.

25 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986
Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. London, England: Cambridge University Press.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, applied locally1
 

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

dried leaf, powdered, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html