colds

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • bejuco caro

Haiti:

  • lyann mòl
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction with sugar, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

The topical use for abscess, ganglionar inflammation and boils is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and skin toxicity studies.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abscess or boils last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Oral administration for cold, cough and influenza is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For abscess, ganglionar inflammation and boils:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the washed and crushed leaf in sufficient quantity to the affected area.  Cover the injury with a dressing or clean cloth.  Replace every 12 hours.

For colds, cough and influenza:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 PINEDA M, 1990
Fitoquímica de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Laboratorio enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 GARCIA MD, QUILEZ AM, SAENZ MT, MARTINEZ-DOMINGUEZ ME, DE LA PUERTA R, 2000
Anti-inflammatory activity of Agave intermixta Trel. and Cissus sicyoides L., species used in the Caribbean traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 71:395-400.

6 BELTRAME FL, SARTORETTO JL, BAZOTTE RB, CUMAN RN, CORTEZ DAG, 2001
Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação do efeito antidiabético do Cissus verticillata L (Vitaceae). Química Nova 24:783-785.

7 BARBOSA WLR, SANTOS WRAS, PINTO LN, TAVARES ICC, 2002
Flavonóides de Cissus verticillata e a atividade hipoglicemiante do chá de suas folhas. Rev Bras Farmacognosia 12:13-15.

8 DE SOUSA C, DE PAIVA T, BEZERRA P, FALCÃO J, OLIVEIRA F, SILVEIRA E, FERREIRA J, FREIRE D, RODRIGUES M, CLEA F, DE SOUSA F, DE CASTRO D, DA ROCHA S, DE BARROS G, 2007
Anti-diabetic activity of a fraction from Cissus verticillata and tyramine, its main bioactive constituent, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. American J of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(4):178-188.

9 STANDLEY PC, 1937
The flora of Costa Rica, Pt. I. Bot Serv Field Mus Nat Hist 18(391):398.

10 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Evaluación de la actividad antiestafilocóccica de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

11 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986
Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Hollande.

12 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, 1964
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 16:115-117.

13 JIU J, 1966
A survey of some medicinal plants of Mexico for selected biological activities. Lloydia 29:250-259.

14 GARCIA MD, QUILEZ AM, SAENZ MT, MARTINEZ DOMINGUEZ ME, DE LA PUERTA R, 2000.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Agave intermixta Trel. and Cissus sicyoides L., species used in South Caribbean traditional medicine.
J Ethnopharmacol 71(3):395-400.

15 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002.
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

16 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002.
Toxicidad aguda tópica de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

17 CAMBAR P, 1992
Efecto de los extractos acuosos de Cissus verticillata L. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

French Guiana:

  • citron
  • citron vert

Puerto Rico:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Honduras:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Panama:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Venezuela:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Colombia:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • lime

Dominica:

  • lime

Dominican Republic:

  • limón, limón agrio, lima

Martinique:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Guadeloupe:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi
  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè

Saint Martin:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Haiti:

  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1-3,10

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

4 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

5 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

8 HAY YO, 1998
Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

9 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

10 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

11 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

12 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

13 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

18 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

19 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press. p45.

20 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986
Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

21 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOZA A, VASQUEZ Y, GUPTA MP, 2005Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. var. mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

24 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

25 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

26 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

27 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

28 ADESINA S, 1982
Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

29 GUPTA M, 1987
Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México: Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

31 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

37 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009
Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989
Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

40 PELLECUER J, 1995
Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Barbados:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Puerto Rico:

  • limoncillo

Dominican Republic:

  • limoncillo

Venezuela:

  • molojillo criollo

Guadeloupe:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Dominica:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Saint Martin:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Martinique:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Saint Lucia:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Guatemala:

  • té de limón

Honduras:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té

Mexico:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té

Costa Rica:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally4-5,8,11-12,44-46,48

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, or should fever last more than 2 days, stomach pain more than 3, or cough more than 5, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

TRAMIL Research42

For diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-25 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 15-25 grams of leaf.  Cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL), 2-3 times a day.

In all the above-mentioned uses for oral administration, the preparation should be properly filtered, using a cloth, as a prerequisite for consumption, in order to avoid mechanical injuries to the mucosas, due to the microfilaments present in the leaf26.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

10 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

11 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

12 CLEMENT Y, BAKSH-COMEAU Y, RAGOO R, SEAFORTH C, 2008
TRAMIL survey. UWI & UTT, Trinidad.

13 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 DELENS M, 1992
Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

18 O'REILLY A, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

19 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

20 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

21 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

22 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

23 ABEGAZ B, YOHANNES P, DIETER R, 1983
Constituents of the essential oil of Ethiopian Cymbopogon citratus. J Nat Prod 46(3):424-426.

24 DE MATOUSCHEK B, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Phytochemical investigation of nonvolatile constituents of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae). Pharm Acta Helv 66(9/10):242-245.

25 HANSON S, CRAWFORD M, KOKER M, MENEZES F, 1976
Cymbopogonol, a new triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus. Phytochemistry 15:1074-1075.

26 YOKOYAMA Y, TSUYUKI T, NAKAMURA N, TAKAHASHI T, HANSON S, MATSUSHITA K, 1980
Revised structures of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol. Tetrahedron Lett 21:3701-3702.

27 OLANIYI A, SOFOWORA E, OGUNTIMEHIN B, 1975
Phytochemical investigation of some Nigerian plants used against fevers. II. Cymbopogon citratus. Planta Med 28:186-189.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p57.

29 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990
Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

30 MORON F, SANCHEZ C, MARTINEZ MC, MOREJON Z, PINEDO Z, 2000
Actividad antiespasmódica in vitro de hojas frescas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de efectos antiinflamatorio y analgésico del extracto fluído de Cymbopogon citratus al 30% por vía oral. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):3-6.

32 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

33 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, DAGUILH R, HENRYS D, HENRYS J, ANTON R, 1986
Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):13-30.

34 CARLINI EA, CONTAR JD, SILVA-FILHO AR, SOLVEIRA-FILHO NG, FROCHTENGARTEN ML, BUENO OF, 1986
Pharmacology of lemon-grass Cymbopogon citratus I. Effect of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):37-64.

35 SOUZA FORMIGONI ML, LODDER HM, FILHO OG, FERREIRA TM, CARLINI EA, 1986
Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero". J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):65-74.

36 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, TOLON Z, 1989
Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 25(1):103-107.

37 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

38 LORENZETTI B, SOUZA G, SARTI S, FILHO DS, FERREIRA SH, 1991
Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34(1):43-48.

39 SETH, G, KOKATE CK, VARMA KC, 1976
Effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on central nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol 14(3):370-371.

40 LEMOS TLG, MATOS FJA, ALENCAR JW, CRAVEIRO AA, CLARK AM, MC CHESNEY JD, 1990
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants. Phytother Res 4(2):82-84.

41 AWUAH R, 1989
Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Ann Appl Biol 115(3):451-453.

42 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

43 KOBAYASHI N, 1989
Pharmaceutical compositions containing lemongrass extracts and antioxidants. Patens Japan Kokai Tokio Koho, 01, 221, 320.

44 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

45 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

46 DE LA TORRE RA, ESPINOSA-AGUIRRE JJ, CORTINAS DE NAVA C, IZQUIERDO T, MORON F, 1994
Genotoxic activity of mebendazole in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 305(2):139-144.

47 PILOTO FERRER J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZALEZ ML, RODRIGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

48 LEITE JR, SEABRA ML, MALUF E, ASSOLANT K, SUCHECKI D, TUFIK S, KLEPACZ S, CALIL HM, CARLINI EA, 1986
Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):75-83.

49 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.
Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

50 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Panama:

  • cangulala
  • congalala
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

twigs with leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for colds is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For colds:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

2 GOVINDACHARI T, NAGARAJAN K, PAI B, 1956
Wedelolactone from Eclipta alba. J Sci Ind Res-B 15:664-665.

3 BHARGAVA K, KRISHNASWAMY N, SESHADRI T, 1970
Isolation of demethyl wedelolactone and its glucoside from Eclipta alba. Indian J Chem 8(7):664-665.

4 SARG T, ABDEL SALAM N, EL-DOMIATY M, KHAFAGY S, 1981
The steroid, triterpenoid and flavonoid constituents of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Compositae) grown in Egypt. Sci Pharm 49:262-264.

5 WAGNER H, GEYER B, KISO Y, HIKINO H, RAO G, 1986
Coumestans as the main active principles of the liver drugs Eclipta alba and Wedelia calendulacea-1. Planta Med 5:370-374.

6 BOHLMANN F, ZDERO C, 1970
Polyacetylene compounds. Part 173. Constituents of Eclipta erecta. Chem Ber 103:834-841.

7 SINGH P, 1988
Naturally-occuring thiophene derivatives from Eclipta species. Bioact Mol 7:179-186.

8 SINGH P, SHARMA A, JOSHI K, BOHLMANN F, 1985
A further dithienylacetylene from Eclipta erecta. Phytochemistry 24(3):615-616.

9 KRISHNASWAMY N, SESHADRI T, SHARMA B, 1966
Synthesis of alpha-terthienylmethanol, a component of Eclipta alba. Curr Sci 35(21):542.

10 JAIN S, SINGH P, 1988
A dithienylacetylene ester from Eclipta erecta Linn. Indian J Chem Ser B27(1):99-100.

11 SIKRORIA BC, SRIVASTAVA SJ, NIRANJAN GS, 1982
Phytochemical studies on Eclipta alba. J Indian Chem Soc 59 (7):905.

12 SINGH P, BHARGAVA S, 1992
A dithienylacetylene ester from Eclipta erecta. Phytochemistry 31(8):2883-2884.

13 PAL S, NARASIMHAM N, 1943
The alkaloid inEclipta alba (Hassk). J Indian Chem Soc 20:181.

14 ZOU J, UCHIYAMA M, 1993
Chemical constituents of yerbadetajo (Eclipta prostrata). Chung Ts'ao Yao 24(4):174-176.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p67.

16 KOSUGE T, YOKOTA M, SUGIYAMA K, YAMAMOTO T, NI M, YAN S, 1985
Studies on antitumor activities and antitumor principles of Chinese herbs. I. Antitumor activities of Chinese herbs. Yakugaku Zasshi 105(8):791-795.

17 SATO A, 1989
Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short-term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

18 GHISALBERTI E, SKELTON B, WHITE A, 1995
Structural study of torquatone, an acylphloroglucinol derivative from Eucalyptus species. Aust J Chem 48(10):1771-1774.

19 TRIRATANA T, PARIYAKANOK P, SUWANNURAKS R, NAENGCHOMNOG W, 1988
The study of medicinal herbs on coagulation mechanism. J Dent Assoc Thai 38(1):25-30.

20 THYAGARAJAN S, THIRUNEELAKANTAN K, SUBRAMANIAN S, SUNDARAVELU T, 1982
In vitro inactivation of hbsag by Eclipta alba Hassk and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Indian J Med Res 76S:124-130.

21 KUSUMOTO I, NAKABAYASHI T, KIDA H, MIYASHIRO H, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, SHIMOTOHNO K, 1995
Screening of various plant extracts used in Ayurvedic medicine for inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. Phytother Res 9(3):180-184.

22 RIPATHI R, TRIPATHI R, 1982
Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia38(3):349-349.

23 DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, RAY C, 1968
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: part I. Indian J Exp Biol 6:232-247.

24 MINSHI Z, 1989
An experimental study of the anti-hsv II action of 500 herbal drugs. J Trad Chinese Med 9(2):113-116.

25 ZHENG M, 1988
An experimental study of antiviral action of 472 herbs on Herpes simplex virus. J Trad Chin Med 8(3):203-206.

26 AOVI S, KHAN M, VOHORA S, 1991
Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anthelmintic investigations on Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 62(3):221-228.

27 HADKE S, KULKARNI S, 1989
Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba and Ocimum sanctum. Indian J Med Sci 43(5):113-117.

28 FAROUK A, BASHIR A, SALIH A, 1983
Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine. Screening for antibacterial activity (I). Fitoterapia 54(1):3-7.

29 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL P, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.

J Ethnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

30 NENE Y, THAPLIYAL P, KUMAR K, LABDEV, 1968
Screening of some plant extracts for antifungal properties. J Sci Tech B 6(4):226-228.

31 AL-SHAMMA A, MITSCHER L, 1979
Comprehensive survey of indigenous Iraqi plants for potential economic value. I. Screening results of 327 species for alkaloids and antimicrobial agents. J Nat Prod 42:633-642.

32 MISRA P, PAL N, GURU P, KATIYAR J, TANDON J, 1991
Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):19-23.

33 MISHRA A, DOGRA J, SINGH J, JHA O, 1979
Post-coital antifertility activity of Annona squamosa and Ipomoea fistulosa. Planta Med 35:283-285.

34 MENDES N, PEREIRA N, DE SOUZA C, LIMA DE OLIVEIRA M, 1984
Preliminary laboratory studies for the verification of molluscicidal activity of several species from the Brazilian flora. Rev Saude Publ Sao Paulo 18:348-354.

35 IJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA S, PRASAD S, 1979
Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Koffoid and White) Chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 KIUCHI F, HIOKI M, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, TSUDAY, KONDO K, 1989
Screening of crude drugs used in Sri Lanka for nematocidal activity on the larva of Toxocaria canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):288-293.

37 DEBELMAS A, HACHE J, 1976
Toxicity of several medicinal plants of Nepal including some behavioral and central nervous system effects. Plant Med Phytother 10:128-138.

38 MORS WB, DO NASCIMENTO MC, PARENTE JP, DA SILVA MH, MELO PA, SUAREZ-KURTZ G, 1989
Neutralization of lethal and myotoxic activities of South American rattlesnake venom by extracts and constituents of the plant Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae). Toxicon27(9):1003-1009.

39 KOSUGE T, YOKOTA M, YOSHIDA M, OCHIAI A, 1981
Studies on antihemorrhagic principles in the crude drugs for hemostatics. I. On hemostatic activities of the crude drugs for hemostatics. Yakugaku Zasshi 101:501-503.

40 SINGH B, SAXENA K, CHANDAN B, AGARWAL S, BHATIA M, ANAND K, 1993
Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba on experimental liver damage in rats and mice. Phytother Res 7(2):154-158.

41 CHANDRA T, SADIQUE J, SOMASUNDRARAM S, 1987

Effect of Eclipta alba on inflammation and liver injury. Fitoterapia 58(1):23-32.

42 SAXENA A, SINGH B, ANAND K, 1993
Hepatoprotective effects of Eclipta alba on subcellular levels in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 40(3):155-161.

43 VAISHWANAR I, KOWALE C, JIDDEWAR G, 1976
Effect of two Ayurvedic drugs Shilajeet & Eclinol on changes in liver & serum lipids produced by carbon tetrachloride. Indian J Exp Biol 14:58.

44 SHARMA A, SINGH R, SEHGAL V, HANDA S, 1991
Antihepatotoxic activity of some plants used in herbal formulations.

Fitoterapia 62(2):131-138.

45 KHANNA A, CHANDER R, KAPOOR N, 1991
Hypolipidemic activity of abana in rats. Fitoterapia 62(3):271-274.

46 MISRA M, MISHRA S, MISRA R, 1969
Screening of a few indigenous abortifacients. J Indian Med Assoc 52:535.

47 DHAWAN B, SAXENA P, 1958
A preliminary report evaluation of some indigenous drugs for stimulant effect on the rat uterus. Indian J Med Res 46(6):808-311.

48 MELO P, NASCIMENTO M, MORS W, SUAREZ-KURTZ G, 1994
Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) extracts and constituents. Toxicon 32(5):595-603.

49 KHIN MA-MA, NYUNT N, KHIN MAUNG TIN, 1978
The protective effect of Eclipta alba on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 45:723-728.

50 KAPUR RD, 1948
Action of some indigenous drugs on uterus. A preliminary note. Indian J Med Res 36:47.

51 GUPTA S, YADAVA JNS, TANDON JS, 1993
Antisecretory (antidiarrhoeal) activity of Indian medicinal plants against Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and guinea pig ileal loop models. Int J Pharmacog 31(3):198-204.

52 HAN B, YANG O, KIM Y, HAN Y, 1994
Screening of the platelet activating factor (paf) antagonistic activities on herbal medicines. Yakhak Hoe Chi 38(4):462-468.

53 WAGNER H, FESSLER B, 1986
In vitro 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by Eclipta alba extracts and the coumestan derivative wedelolactone. Planta Med 5:374-377.

54 DABRAL P, SHARMA R, 1983
Evaluation of the role of rumalaya and geriforte in chronic arthritis-a preliminary study. Probe 22(2):120-127.

55 AGRAWAL RC, KAPADIA LA, 1982
Treatment of piles with indigenous drugs-pilex tablets and ointment along with styplon. Probe 21(3):201-204.

56 VIJAYASARATHY V, SHARMA L, PRAKASH A, 1981
Indigenous drug treatment for hemorrhoids. Probe 20(4):285-287.

57 DIXIT S, ACHAR M, 1981
Study of bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) therapy in jaundice in children. J Sci Res Pl Med 2:96-100.

58 ANON 1982
A trial of bhringaraja ghanasatwavati on the patients of Kostha-shakhasrita Kamala (with special reference to hepatocellular jaundice). J Natl Integ Med Assoc 24(9):265-269.

59 SANKARAN J, 1984
An all India multicentric clinical survey on a herbal cure-tefroli for hepatitis. J Natl Integ Med Assoc 26(9):255-261.

60 DIXIT S, ACHAR M, 1979
Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba Linn.) in the treatment of infective hepatitis. Curr Med Pract 23(6):237-242.

61 JAYARAM S, THYAGARAJAN S, PANCHANADAM M, SUBRAMANIAN S, 1987
Anti-hepatitis-B virus properties of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and Eclipta alba Hassk:in vitro and in vivo safety studies. Bio-Medicine 7(2):9-16.

62 PRAKASH A, PASALU I, MATHUR K, 1979
Ovicidal activity of Eclipta alba Hassk. (Compositae). Curr Sci 48:1090.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • bwa donm

Dominican Republic:

  • bwa donm
  • guácima
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  withered leaf (senescent), decoction with sugar, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for flu, common cold and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the cough last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For flu, common cold and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 12 grams of old leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 1 cup 3-4 times a day15-16.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 WONG W, 1976
Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

5 SEIGLER DS, PAULI GF, FROHLICH R, WEGELIUS E, NAHRSTEDT A, GLANDER KE, EBINGER JE, 2005
Cyanogenic glycosides and menisdaurin from Guazuma ulmifolia, Ostrya virginiana, Tiquilia plicata, and Tiquilia canescens. Phytochemistry 66(13):1567-1580.

6 HOR M, HEINRICH M, RIMPLER H, 1996
Proanthocyanidin polymers with antisecretory activity and proanthocyanidin oligomers from Guazuma ulmifolia bark. Phytochemistry 42(1):109-119.

7 LOPES GC, LONGHINI R, DOS SANTOS PV, ARAÚJO AA, BRUSCHI ML, DE MELLO JC, 2012
Preliminary assessment of the chemical stability of dried extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae). Int J Anal Chem 2012:508945.

8 GIRON L, 1988
Evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana de 4 plantas de la lista TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

9 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

11 TSENG C, IWAKAMI S, MIKAJIRI A, SHIBUYA M, HANAOKA F, EBIZUKA Y, PADMAWINATA K, SANKAWA U, 1992
Inhibition of in vitro prostaglandin and leukotriene biosyntheses by cinnamoyl-beta-phenethylamine and N-acyldopamine derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull 40(2):396-400.

12 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6º ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

13 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

14 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de corteza del tallo fresco machacado de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

15 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca machacada de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

16 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos en vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

17 HOEHNE FC, 1939
Plantas e substâncias vegetais tóxicas e medicinais. São Paulo, Brazil: Dep. Bot. do Estado Sao-Paulo. Ed Graphicars.

18 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

19 CACERES A, 1996
Plantas de uso medicinal en Guatemala. Guatemala, Guatemala: Editorial Universitaria de San Carlos. p126.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • brisée
  • lamerik

Venezuela:

  • malojillo extranjero
  • poleo
  • Santa María
  • toronjil

Panama:

  • mastranto

Puerto Rico:

  • poleo

Saint Martin:

  • ti bouch
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fresh leaf, decoction, orally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Uses for flu and common cold are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should flu or common cold symptoms persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For flu and common cold:

Prepare an infusion: add 1 cup (250 mL) of boiling water to 7.5 grams of previously washed and chopped fresh leaves (approximately 20 medium-sized leaves) or aerial parts. Cover the pot and let the preparation settle for 5-10 minutes.  Filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 211 familles du canton Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI),

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 DELENS M, 1992
Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 BENEDETTI MD, MEJIA A, ACOSTA D, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

5 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

6 FESTER G, MARTINUZZI E, RETAMAR J, RICCIARDI A, 1955
Some volatile essential oils. VII. Rev Fac Ing Quim 24:37-55.

7 CATALAN CAN, MEREP DJ, RETAMAR JA, 1977
The essential oil of Lippia alba from the Tucuman province. Riv Ital Essenze Profumi Piante Offic Aromi Saponi Cosmet Aer 59:513-518.

8 CASTRO DM, MING LC, MARQUES MO, TANAKA FA, 2000
Anatomic characterization and chemical composition of essential oils of different leaves of Lippia alba (Mill.) stem axis. 1er Congreso Peruano de Plantas Medicinales y Fitoterapía, 27-30 Septiembre 2000, Lima, Perú:112-114.

9 BANDONI A, 2003
Los recursos vegetales aromáticos en Latinoamérica: su aprovechamiento industrial para la producción de aromas y sabores. Buenos Aires, Argentina: CYTED, 2 ed., CD-ROM, ISBN:987-43-6072-0.

10 LÓPEZ MA, STASHENKO EE, FUENTES JL, 2011
Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils. Genet Mol Biol 34(3):479-488.

11 VERAS HN, CAMPOS AR, RODRIGUES FF, BOTELHO MA, COUTINHO HD, MENEZES IR, DA COSTA JG, 2011
Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus. Pharmacogn Mag 7(28):334-337.

12 MAYNARD LG, SANTOS KC, CUNHA PS, BARRETO AS, PEIXOTO MG, ARRIGONI-BLANK F, BLANK AF, ALVES PB, BONJARDIN LR, SANTOS MR, 2011
Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery. Indian J Pharmacol 43(6):694-698.

13 CONDE R, CORRÊA VS, CARMONA F, CONTINI SH, PEREIRA AM, 2011
Chemical composition and therapeutic effects of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown leaves hydro-alcoholic extract in patients with migraine. Phytomedicine 18(14):1197-1201.

14 BANDONI AL, MENDIONDO ME, RONDINA RVD, COUSSIO JD, 1976
Survey of Argentine medicinal plants. Folklore and phytochemical screening. II. Econ Bot 30(2):161-185.

15 RUFFA MJ, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, NADINIC J, PAMPURO S, SALOMON H, CAMPOS RH, CAVALLARO L, 2004
Inhibitory effect of medicinal herbs against RNA and DNA viruses. Antivir Chem Chemother 15(3):153-159.

16 CACERES A, ALVAREZ AV, OVANDO AE, SAMAYOA BE, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol 31(2):193-208.

17 COSTA M, DI STASI L, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI S, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1/2):25-33.

18 VALE TG, MATOS FJA, DE LIMA TCM, VIANA GSB, 1999
Behavioral effects of essential oils from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown chemotypes. J Ethnopharmacol 67(2):127-133.

19 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, OCAMPO R, PAZOS L, 2001
Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Lippia alba. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratón, del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Lippia alba var. dulce. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratón, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Lippia alba. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

22 PASCUAL ME, SLOWING K, CARRETERO ME, VILLAR A, 2001
Antiulcerogenic activity of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Farmaco 56(5-7):501-504.

23 BHAKUNI D, DHAR M, DHAR M, DHAWAN B, GUPTA B, SRIMALI R, 1971
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part III. Indian J Exp Biol 9:91.

24 CARBALLO A, 1994
Plantas medicinales del Escambray Cubano. Apuntes científicos.

25 Code of Federal Regulations, 2004
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Nov.13,2004, URL: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/FCF182.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • mant
  • mant

Saint Martin:

  • mant

Martinique:

  • mant

Dominica:

  • peppermint

Cuba:

  • toronjil
  • toronjil de menta

Panama:

  • yerba buena

Venezuela:

  • yerba buena
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally5-6,38

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

7 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

10 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

11 KRAPP K, LONGE J, 2005
Enciclopedia de las Medicinas Alternativas. Editorial Océano, Barcelona, pp:1017-1021.

12 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985
Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

13 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha x piperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

14 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967
Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

15 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

16 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

17 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990
Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

18 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981
Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

19 ARUMUGAM P, GAYATRI N, SUBATHRA M, RAMESH A, 2008
Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):92-95.

20 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

21 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

22 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988
Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993
Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991
Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996
Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

30 PARRA AL, CAPO JT, MONTALVO RV, GONZALEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cub Plantas Med 1(4):26-28.

31 MICROMEDEX T, 2003
Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

32 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

33 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

34 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

35 WICHTL M, 1999
Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • mant
  • mant

Saint Martin:

  • mant

Martinique:

  • mant

Dominica:

  • peppermint

Cuba:

  • toronjil
  • toronjil de menta

Panama:

  • yerba buena

Venezuela:

  • yerba buena
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally5-6,38

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

7 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

10 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

11 KRAPP K, LONGE J, 2005
Enciclopedia de las Medicinas Alternativas. Editorial Océano, Barcelona, pp:1017-1021.

12 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985
Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

13 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha x piperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

14 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967
Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

15 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

16 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

17 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990
Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

18 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981
Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

19 ARUMUGAM P, GAYATRI N, SUBATHRA M, RAMESH A, 2008
Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):92-95.

20 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

21 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

22 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988
Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993
Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991
Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996
Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

30 PARRA AL, CAPO JT, MONTALVO RV, GONZALEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cub Plantas Med 1(4):26-28.

31 MICROMEDEX T, 2003
Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

32 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

33 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

34 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

35 WICHTL M, 1999
Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • asorosi

Honduras:

  • calaica

Barbados:

  • cerasee

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • corailee
  • popololo
  • sorrow seed

Puerto Rico:

  • cundeamor

Dominican Republic:

  • cundeamor

Venezuela:

  • cundeamor

Dominica:

  • kokouli

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • maiden blush

Costa Rica:

  • sorosí

Guatemala:

  • sorosí
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  aerial parts, decoction, orally10-12

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for furuncles and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Use for dry skin conditions, itching, lice (pediculosis) and burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should furuncles last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Do not take orally during pregnancy due to risk of abortion.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash the aerial parts of the plant thoroughly and crush them.  Apply 30 grams (a handful) of vegetal material on the affected area of skin 3 times a day.

For common cold:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-1995
Encuestas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

7 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (region Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

8 DELENS M, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

9 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala.

10 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

11 O'REILLY A, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

12 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

13 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

14 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

15 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de médecine et de pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

16 HERRERA J, 1990
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

17 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p110.

18 YASUDA M, IWAMOTO M, OKABE H, YAMAUCHI T, 1984
Structures of momordicines I, II and III, the bitter principles in the leaves and vines of Momordica charantia. Chem Pharm Bull 32(5):2044-2047.

19 DHALLA NS, GUPTA KC, SASTRY MS, MALHOTRA CL, 1961
Chemical composition of the fruit of Momordica charantia. Indian J Pharmacy 23:128-130.

20 KANNA B, 1976
Insulin from Momordica charantia. Patent-Japan Kokai.

21 NG TB, YEUNG HW, 1984
Bioactive constituents of Cucurbitaceae plants with special emphasis on Momordica charantia and Trichosanthes kirilowii. Seoul, Korea: Proc. 5th. Symposium Medicinal Plants and Spices.

22 KHANNA P, MOHAN S, 1973
Isolation and identification of diosgenin and sterols from fruits and in vitro cultures of Momordica charantia. Indian J Exp Biol 11:58-60.

23 OKABE H, MIYAHARA K, YAMAGUCHI T, MIYAHARA K, KAWASAKI T, 1980
Studies on the constituents of Momordica charantia L. I: Isolation and characterization of momordicosides A and B, glycosides of a pentahydroxy-cucurbitane triterpene. Chem Pharm Bull 28(9):2753-2762.

24 RODRIGUEZ DB, RAYMUNDO LC, TUNG-CHING LEE, SIMPSON KL, CHICHESTER CO, 1976
Carotenoid pigment changes in ripening Momordica charantia fruits. Ann Bot (London) 40(3):615-624.

25 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

26 HEAL R, ROGERS E, WALLACE RT, STARNES O, 1950
A survey of plants for insecticidal activity. Lloydia 13(2):89-162.

27 HUSSAIN HSN, DEENI YY, 1991
Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacol 29(1):51-56.

28 MANEELRT S, SATTHAMPONGSA A, 1978
Antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia. Undergraduate special project report. Bangkok, Thailand: Mahidol University. Faculty of Pharmacy.

29 MOKKHASMIT M, SAWASDIMONGKOL K, SATRAWAHA P, 1971
Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants. Bull Dept Med Sci 12(1/2):36-65.

30 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill y Cassia occidentalis L. en cobayos. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L. y Cassia occidentalis L. en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

32 LAGARTO A, COURET M, GUERRA I, LOPEZ R, 2008
Toxicidad aguda oral y ensayos de irritación de extractos acuoso e hidroalcohólico de (follaje) Momordica charantia L. Rev Cubana Plant Med [online] 13(3):0-0. Disponible en: http://bvs.sld.cu/revistas/pla/vol13_3_08/pla05308.htm

33 TABORA O, 1986
Estudio de toxicidad aguda en ratones de la fracción hipoglucemiante de Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: IV Semana Científica Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH.

34 PRAKASH AO, MATHUR R, 1976
Screening of Indian plants for antifertility activity. Indian J Exp Biol 14(5):623-626. 

35 RUIZ AR, DE LA TORRE RA, ALONSO N, VILLAESCUSA A, BETANCOURT J, VIZOSO A, 1996
Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans. J Ethnopharmacol 52(3):123-127.

36 SHARMA VN, SOGANI RK, ARORA RB, 1960
Some observations on hypoglycemic activity of Momordica charantia. Indian J Med Res 48(4):471-477.

37 UCHE-NWACHI EO, MC EWEN C, 2010
Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on the Sprague Dawley rats. African J of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 7(1):24-33.

38 DIXIT VP, KHANNA P, BHARGAVA SK, 1978
Effects of Momordica charantia fruit extract on the testicular function of dog. Planta Med 34(3):280-286.

39 KOENTJORO-SOEHADI T, SANTA I, 1982
Perspectives of male contraception with regards to Indonesian traditional drugs. Bali, Indonesia: 2nd National Congress of Indonesian Society of Andrology.

40 KHAN AH, BURNEY A, 1962
A preliminary study of the hypoglycemic properties of indigenous plants. Pakistan J Med Res 2:100-116.

41 WEST M, SIDRAK G, STREET S, 1971
The anti-growth properties of extracts from Momordica charantia. West Indian Med J 20(1):25-34.

42 NG T, 1988
Effects of momorcharins on ovarian response to gonadotropin induced superovulation in mice. Int J Fertil 33(2):123-128.

43 YEUNG HW, LI WW, FENG Z, BARBIERI L, STIRPE F, 1988
Trichosanthin, alpha-momorcharin and beta-momorcharin: Identity of abortifacient and ribosome-inactivating protein. Int J Peptide Protein Res 31(3):265-268.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • anamú

Colombia:

  • anamú

Panama:

  • anamú

Guatemala:

  • apacín

Haiti:

  • ave

Honduras:

  • ipacina

Dominica:

  • koujourouk
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf and stem, decoction, orally8

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for digestive conditions (stomach pain, bad or slow digestion and intestinal gas) toothache, muscle pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for headache, flatulence, flu and nasal congestion (sinusitis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)11 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Considering the risks of documented interactions with insulin or oral hypoglycemiants, the decoction of the leaf and stem should not be ingested by patients taking or using these medicines due to the risk of magnifying their effects.

The root and the stem can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 12 years old.

Not for use during pregnancy because it may be abortifacient.

For digestive conditions and common cold:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter of water (4 cups). Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, allow to cool and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For rheumatism:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf and root in 1 liter of water (4 cups) for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For nasal congestion (sinusitis):

Prepare a fine powder of the root and stem from dried and sieved material, inhale 0.2 to 0.5 grams through each nostril, 2 times a day38.

For headache, toothache, muscle pain, flatulence, flu and skin diseases:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

5 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardin Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 LEMUS Z, GARCÍA M, BATISTA A, DE LA GUARDIA O, CASTILLO A, 2004
La tableta de anamú: un medicamento herbario inmunoestimulante. MEDISAN 8(3), 57-64.

9 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 SEGELMAN F, SEGELMAN A, 1975
Constituents of Petiveria alliacea. Lloydia 38(6):537.

12 DE SOUSA JR, DEMUNER AJ, PINHEIRO JA, BREITMAIER E, CASSELS BK, 1990
Dibenzyl trisulphide and trans-N-methyl-4-methoxyproline from Petiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry 29(11):3653-3655.

13 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la raíz fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

14 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de la acción analgésica de la Petiveria alliacea (anamu) en ratones. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(1):16-18.

15 DEL CARMEN RIVAS C, JIMENEZ M, AYALA L, CARILLO C, CABRERA Y, 1988
Actividad anti-inflamatoria y analgésica de Petiveria alliaceae. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM), La Habana, Cuba.

16 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):34-37.

17 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, PINEDO Z, BOUCOURT E, 2001
Actividad antimicrobiana y sobre varias preparaciones de músculo liso, in vitro, de la decocción liofilizada de hoja de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 GARCIA GM, COMO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1995
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 ECHEVARRIA A, TORRES D, 2001
Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro. Rev Cubana Med Mil 30(3):161-165.

20 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J of Ethnopharm 20(3):223-237.

21 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for the antimicotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J of Ethnopharm 31(3):263-276.

22 RUFFA MJ, PERUSINA M, ALFONSO V, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, CAMPOS R, CAVALLARO L, 2002
Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 48(3):144-147.

23 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J of Ethnopharm 33(3):277-283.

24 GERMANO DH, CALDEIRA TT, MAZELLA AA, SERTIE JA, BACCHI EM, 1993
Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliacea. Fitoterapia 64(5):459-467.

25 ANDERSSON DUNSTAN C, NOREEN Y, SERRANO G, COX PA, PERERA P, BOHLIN L, 1997
Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays. J of Ethnopharmacol 57(1):35-56.

26 LIMA TCM, MORATO GS, TAKAHASHI RN, 1991
Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86(suppl.2):153-158.

27 FERRAZ MB, PEREIRA RB, IWATA NM, ATRA E, 1991
Tipi. A popular analgesic tea. A double blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9(2):205-206.

28 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

29 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) oral de la decocción de hojas jóvenes frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) intraperitoneal de la decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratones de decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V. 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

33 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vitro: mediante el sistema de ensayo con Aspergillus nidulans de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 CACERES A, LOPEZ B, GONZALEZ S, BERGER I, TADA I, MAKI J, 1998
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J of Ethnopharmacol 62(3):195-202.

35 GUERRA MO, OLIVEIRA AB, MAIA JGS, PETERS VM, 1989
Alteraçäo do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratos após tratamento com extratos aquosos de diferentes orgäos de Petiveria alliacea. Bol Centro Biol Reprod 8:17-22.

36 GERMANO DHP, SERTIE JAA, BACCHI EM, 1995
Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliacea. II. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydroalcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia 66(3):195-202.

37 REYNOLDS J Ed., 1996
Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. Evaluated information on the world’s drugs and medicines. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1678.

38 BUDAVARI S Ed., 2001
The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p181.

39 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p298.