flatulence

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • ajito con pelo

Haiti:

  • dégonflé
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaves, decoction with salt, taken orally1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional uses documented in TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, and published scientific information.

Not for use in children under 5 years of age, or pregnant or lactating women. 

Do not consume for more than 3 days in a row.

Use for flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams of leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil uncovered for at least 10 minutes.  Cool, filter, and drink one cup after meals.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Médecine, Université de Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Eine Übersicht über die Verbreitung und die systematische Bedeutung der Pflanzenstoffe. 6, Dicotyledoneae: Rafflesiaceae — Zygophyllaceae. Basel und Stuttgart, Deutschland: Birkhäuser Verlag.

5 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA PJ, 1987
Biologically active natural products. Oxford, England: Oxford Science Publications.

6 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

7 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986
Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Groningen & Leyden, Hollande.

8 DEL ROSARIO PEREZ R, WENIGER B, 1988
Activité d’Acalypha alopecuroidea sur intestin isolé. Travail TRAMIL. Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

9 MORÓN F, BETANCOURT J, PINEDO Z, BOUCOURT E, 2000
Efecto de hoja fresca de Acalypha alopecuroidea Jacq. en el tránsito intestinal de ratones in vivo. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

10 MARTÍNEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LÓPEZ M, MOREJÓN Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORÓN F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda de hoja fresca de Acalypha alopecuroidea Jacq. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

11 SOUZA BRITO A, 1995
Toxicidad aguda de Acalypha alopecuroidea. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Fisiología y Biofísica, Universidad de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

12 POULTON J, KEELER R, TU T, 1983
Handbook of natural toxins 1. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, p117.

13 NAHRSTEDT A, 1987
Recent developments in chemistry, distribution and biology of the cyanogenic glycosides. In: Hostettmann K, Lea PJ. Biologically active natural products. Oxford, USA: Oxford Science Publications. p167-184,213-234.

14 ARGEHEORE EM, AGUNBIADE OO, 1991
The toxic effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Grants) diets on humans: a review. Hum Toxicol 33(3):273-275.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • ail
  • lay

Dominican Republic:

  • ajo

Guatemala:

  • ajo

Barbados:

  • garlic

Haiti:

  • lay

Saint Lucia:

  • lay
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bulb, decoction, taken orally1-6,74,75

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

Use for “bad blood” is a traditional cultural use of our communities and is not classified in the TRAMIL Program.

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence, and intestinal parasites is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and published scientific information.

Use for toothaches, earaches, and fever is classified as REC, based on significant traditional uses (OMS/WHO)7 documented by TRAMIL surveys.

The bulb can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum.  If the patient’s condition worsens or if the earache persists for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Contraindicated for use in hyperthyroidism8. The extracts from garlic interact with anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatments.

The bulb of Allium sativum is widely used for human consumption.

The garlic bulb for medicinal purposes should be taken together with meals, so as to prevent gastro-intestinal problems71.

For fever, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence and intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 2 to 5 grams of fresh garlic71 (1 to 2.5 cloves) or 2 to 4 grams of dried garlic71 in 1 cup of water (250 mL), boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For other forms of administration of garlic bulb, the daily consumption doses recommended by OMS71 are: for oil: 2 to 5 mg; for extracts, 300 to 1000 mg (as solid material).  Other type of pharmaceutical preparations should meet alliine values of 4-12 mg or allicine values of 2-5 mg71.

For treatment of skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, toothache, and earache:

2 to 5 g (1 to 2.5 cloves) of peeled fresh garlic; wash thoroughly and crush, then apply to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d’Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

6 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

7 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

8 NATURAL STANDARD, 2010
Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Foods, Herbs & Supplements. www.naturalstandard.com/monographs/herbssupplements/garlic. Last updated 5/17/2010.

9 GRUENWALD J, BRENDLER T, JAENICKE C, 2004
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 988pp.

10 BRINKER FND, 2001
Herb contraindications and drug interactions. 3° edition. Sandy, Oregon, USA: Eclectic Medical Publications.

11 ARTECHI A (Ed.), 1998
Fitoterapia Vademécum de prescripción de Plantas Medicinales. Barcelona, España: Masson. p63.

12 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas et farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. ISIS S.R.L. p208.

13 QUILEZ AM, GARCÍA D, SÁENZ T, 2009
Uso racional de medicamentos a base de plantas. Guía de interacciones entre fitomedicamentos et fármacos de síntesis. Sevilla, España: 1a Edición Fundación Farmacéutica Avenzoar.

14 MEDLINE PLUS, 2009
Ajo (Allium sativum L.). Biblioteca Nacional de Medecina de EE.UU et los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud. URL: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/patient-garlic.htm….

15 CAPORASO N, SMITH S, ENG R, 1983
Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic. Antimicob Agents Chemother 23(5):700-702.

16 PISCITELLI SC, BURSTEIN AH, WELDEN N, GALLICANO KD, FALLOON J, 2002
The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clinical infectious diseases 34(2):234-238.

17 GALLICANO K, FOSTER B, CHOUDHRI S, 2003
Effect of short-term administration of garlic supplements on single-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. British J of Clinical Pharmacology 55(2):199-202.

18 MARKOWITZ JS, DEVANE CL, CHAVIN KD, TAYLOR RM, RUAN Y, DONOVAN JL, 2003
Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 74(2):170-177.

19 AL-NAGDY SA, ABDEL-RAHMAN MO, HEIBA HI, 1988
Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 2:4196-4197.

20 ROLLERI F, 1943
Occurrence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in curative plants. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 281:118.

21 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p13.

22 DR. DUKE’S PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASES, 2009
www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

23 KOCH HP, JAGER W, GROH U, HOVIE JE, PLANK G, SEDLAK U, PRAZNIK W, 1993
Carbohydrates from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) as inhibitors of adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Phytother Res 7(5):387-389.

24 BAUMGARTNER S, DAX TG, PRAZNIK W, FALK H, 2000
Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Carbohydr Res 328(2):177-183.

25 RAKHIMBAEV IR, OL’SHANSKAYA RV, 1981
Preliminary identification of natural gibberellins of garlic. Izv Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr Ser Biol 2:17-22.

26 INAGAKI M, HARADA Y, YAMADA K, ISOBE R, HIGUCHI R, MATSUURA H, ITAKURA Y, 1998
Isolation and structure determination of cerebrosides from garlic, the bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 46(7):1153-1156.

27 SENDL A, ELBL G, STEINKE B, REDL K, BREU W, WAGNER H, 1992
Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 58(1):1-7.

28 MOCHIZUKI E, YAMAMOTO T, KOMIYAMA Y, NAKAZAWA H, 1998
Identification of Allium products using flame photometric detection gas chromatography and distribution patterns of volatile sulfur compounds. J Agr Food Chem 46(12):5170-5176.

29 UEDA Y, SAKAGUCHI M, HIRAYAMA K, MIYAJIMA R, KIMIZUKA A, 1990
Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agr Biol Chem 54(1):163-169.

30 LAWSON LD, WOOD SG, HUGHES BG, 1991
hplc analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med 57(3):263-270.

31 MUTSCH-ECKNER M, ERDELMEIER CAJ, STICHER O, REUTER HD, 1993
A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum. J Nat Prod 56(6):864-869.

32 PENG JP, CHEN H, QIAO YQ, MA LR, NARUI T, SUZUKI H, OKUYAMA T, KOBAYASHI H, 1996
Two new steroidal saponins from Allium sativum and their inhibitory effects on blood coagulability. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31(8):607-612.

33 MATSUURA H, USHIROGUCHI T, ITAKURA Y, FUWA T, 1989
Further studies on steroidal glycosides from bulbs, roots and leaves of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 37(10):2741-2743.

34 VICTORIA MdC, MORÓN FJ, MARTÍNEZ I, BRITO G, FUENTES V, 2011
Efecto antipirético de la decocción 30% de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum (ajo) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

35 SHARMA V, SETHI M, KUMAR A, RAROTRA JR, 1977
Antibacterial property of Allium sativum in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol 15:466.

36 SHAMS M, SHOKOOHAMIRI MR, AMIRRAJAB N, MOGHADASI B, GHAJARI A, ZEINI F, SADEGHI G, RAZZAGHI M, 2006
In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes. Fitoterapia 77:321-323.

37 MOLINA NM, 1992
Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Allium sativum. Evaluación preclínica, farmacológica et toxicológica (Tesis de graduación). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

38 EL-TANBOULY ND, ABDEL-MEGID RM, 1994
HPLC determination of alliin in garlic and garlic products and their antimicrobal activity. Zagazig J Pharm Sci 3(3A):120-124.

39 CÁCERES A, GIRÓN LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

40 KABELIK J, 1970
Antimicrobial properties of garlic. Pharmazie 25(4):266-270.

41 ADETUMBI M, JAVOR GT, LAU BH, 1986
Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30(3):499-501.

42 APPLETON JA, TANSEY MR, 1975
Inhibition of growth of zoopathogenic fungi by garlic extract. Mycologia 67:882-885.

43 PLODDEE A, PALAKORNKOL R, 1977
Antifungal activity of garlic. Undergraduate Special Project Report 1977:23.

44 DELAHA EC, GARAGUSI VF, 1985
Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum ). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 27(4):485-486.

45 FERNÁNDEZ EJ, 1995
Efecto de dos formulaciones hidroalcohólicas de Allium sativum en el tratamiento de patients con dermatofitosis (Tesis de especialidad en farmacología). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

46 PRASAD G, SHARMA VD, RAO VN, KUMAR A, 1983
Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) treatment against dermatophytosis in man and animals. Indian Vet Med J 7(3):161-163.

47 MARTÍNEZ CROVETTO R, 1981
Plantas utilizadas en medicina en el Noroeste de Corrientes. Miscelanea (Fund Miguel Lillo) 69:7-139.

48 ABDEL-GHAFFAR F, SEMMLER M, AL-RASHEID KA, STRASSEN B, FISCHER K, AKSU G, KLIMPEL S, MEHLHORN H, 2011
The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes. Parasitol Res 108(4):979-984.

49 SOFFAR SA, MOKHTAR GM, 1991
Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in Hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 21(2):497-502.

50 NAHED HA, HODA AT, YOMNA IM, 2009
Effects of garlic on albino mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni: a parasitological and ultrastructural study. Trop Biomed 26(1):40-50.

51 GAAFAR MR, 2012
Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against experimental cryptosporidiosis, Alexandria J of Medicine 48:59–66.

52 DAMRAU F, FERGUSON E, 1949
The modus vivendi of carminative. The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rev Med J 2:757-758.

53 DEBLASI V, DEBROT S, MENOUD A, GENDRE L, SCHOWING J, 1990
Amoebicidal effect of essential oils in vitro. J Toxicol Clin Exp 10:361-373.

54 MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

55 MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de bulbo de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961
Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

57 BOJS G, SVENSSON A, 1988
Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Derm 18(3):179-181.

58 PAPAGEORGION C, CORBET JP, BRANDAO FM, PECEGUEIRO M, BENEZIA C, 1983.
Allergic contact dermatitis to Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Identification of the allergens: the role of mono-di and trisulfides present in garlic. A comparative study in man and animal (guinea pig). Arch Dermatol Res 275(4):229-234.

59 KANEZAWA A, NAKAGAWA S, SUMIYOSHI H, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, DATE S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, FUWA T, 1984
General toxicity tests of garlic extract preparation contained vitamins (Kyoleopin). Pharmacometrics 27(5):909-929.

60 SUMIYOSHI H, KANEZAWA A, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, NAKAGAWA S, 1984
Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats. J Toxicol Sci 9(1):61-75.

61 AL-BEKAIRI AM, SHAH AH, QURESHI S, 1990
Effect of Allium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 29(2):117-125.

62 HUH K, PARK JM, LEE S-IL, 1985
Effect of garlic on the therapeutic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat. Arch Pharm Res 8(4):197-203.

63 SITPRIJA S, PLENGVIDHYA C, KANGKAYA V, BHUVAPANICH S, TUNKAYOON M, 1987
Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase III clinical trial. J Med Assoc 70(2):223-227.

64 MC CRINDLE BW, HELDEN E, CONNER WT, 1998
Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 152(11):1089-1094.

65 CHUTANI SK, BORDIA A, 1981
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Therosclerosis 38:417-421.

66 SHARAF A, 1969
Food plant as a possible factor in fertility contrôle. Qual Plant MaterVeg 17:153.

67 CHAUHAN LS, GARG J, BEDI HK, GUPTA RC, BOMB BS, AGARWAL MP, 1982
Effect of onion, garlic and clofibrate on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of blood in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Med J 76(10):126-127.

68 WHO, 2004
Allium sativum. WHO Monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Bulbis Alii Sativi. Ginebra, Suiza, Oct.28,2004. URL: www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/monograph_volume_one…

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • anis
  • lanni

Dominican Republic:

  • hinojo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed, decoction, taken orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

For both uses, it is mainly described in association with Eupatorium aromatizans, Lippia micromera or salt.

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain, flatulence and stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Not for use in women intending to procreate, during pregnancy, during lactation or in children under 5 years old.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abdominal or stomach pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The aerial parts ofAnethum graveolens are widely used as a spice.

For abdominal pain, flatulence and stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15-30 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of seed in one liter (4 cups) of water; boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot.  Filter and take one cup after meals24.

 

1 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 DANIEL M, 1989
Polyphenols of some Indian vegetables. Curr Sci 58(23):1332-1334.

4 VARNAITE R, 1988
Rutin content in capsicum, capsella, urtica, primula, lepidium, lactuca, brassica, anethum, beta, petroselinum, Allium genera representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C 4:29-32.

5 DRANIK LI, PROKOPENKO AP, 1969
Coumarins and acids from Anethum graveolens fruit. Khim Prir Soedin 55:437.

6 APLIN RT, PAGE CB, 1967
Constituents of native Umbelliferae. I. Coumarins from dill (Anethum graveolens). J Chem Soc C 23:2593-2596.

7 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p17.

8 HOSSEINZADEH H, KARIMI GR, AMERI M, 2002
Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice. BMC Pharmacol 2: 21.

9 IKRAM M, HAQ I, 1980
Screening of medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. Fitoterapia 51:281-284.

10 SHIPOCHLIEV T, 1968
Pharmacological investigations into several essential oils, first communication. Effect on the smooth musculature. Vet Med Nauki 5(6):63-69.

11 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

12 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologicaly active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2000
Anethum graveolens. Physician Desk Reference (PDR) for Herbal Medicines, Montvale, USA: Medical Economics Company. p 252.

14 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PÉREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RÍOS JL, MORÁLES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Anethum graveolens. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

15 MARTÍNEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LÓPEZ M, MOREJÓN Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORÓN F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica y clases tóxicas agudas de semilla seca de Anethum graveolens. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

16 NATAQUE K, KANZAWA K, MIZUNO M, UENO N, KOBAYASHI T, DANNE GI, MINAMOTO S, 1989
Herb water-extracts markedly suppress the mutagenicity of TRP-P-2. Agr Biol Chem 53(5):1423-1425.

17 NATH D, SETHI N, SINGH RK, JAIN AK, 1992
Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 36(2):147-154.

18 SETHI N, NATH D, SINGH RK, 1989
Teratological evaluation of some commonly used indigenous antifertility plants in rats. Int J Crude Drugs Res 27(2):118-120.

19 FUKUOKA M, YOSHIHIRA K, NATORI S, SAKAMOTO K, IWAHARA S, HOSAKA S, IRONO I, 1980
Characterization of mutagenic principle and carcinogenicity test of dill weed and seeds. J Pharmacobio Dyn 3(5):236-244.

20 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. pp87,122.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Cuba:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Mexico:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Puerto Rico:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Dominican Republic:

  • naranja agria, naranja de babor

Martinique:

  • oranger amer
  • zowanj anmè

Grenada:

  • sour orange

Haiti:

  • zowanj gospo
  • zowanj si
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit peel, infusion, orally5

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

2 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

7 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986
The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

10 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992
Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

11 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991
Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

12 WIDMER WW, 1991
Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

13 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990
Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

14 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M, 1990
Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

15 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

16 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975
Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

17 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

18 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

19 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

20 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983
The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000
Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

23 SANKAWA U, 1980
Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

24 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979
Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

25 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995
Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

26 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980
Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

27 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986
Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

28 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997
The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

29 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996
Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

30 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996
Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

31 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 GARCIA-GONZALEZ M, FALLAS LV, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009 Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 PENZAK SR, JANN MW, COLD JA, HON YY, DESAI HD, GURLEY BJ, 2001Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol 41(10):1059-1063.

37 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

38 CALAPAI G, FIRENZUOLI F, SAITTA A, SQUADRITO F, ARLOTTA MR, COSTANTINO G, INFERRERA G, 1999Antiobesity and cardiovascular toxic effects of Citrus aurantium extracts in the rat: a preliminary report. Fitoterapia 70(6):586-592.

39 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000
Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis. Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

40 SATO A, 1989
Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

41 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982
Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

42 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982
Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

43 STOHS SJ, PREUSS HG, 2010
The safety of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and p-synephrine. HerbalGram 89:34-39.

44 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Puerto Rico:

  • limoncillo

Dominican Republic:

  • limoncillo

Venezuela:

  • molojillo criollo

Guadeloupe:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Dominica:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Saint Martin:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Martinique:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Saint Lucia:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Guatemala:

  • té de limón

Honduras:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té

Mexico:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té

Costa Rica:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, or should fever last more than 2 days, stomach pain more than 3, or cough more than 5, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

TRAMIL Research42

For diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-25 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 15-25 grams of leaf.  Cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL), 2-3 times a day.

In all the above-mentioned uses for oral administration, the preparation should be properly filtered, using a cloth, as a prerequisite for consumption, in order to avoid mechanical injuries to the mucosas, due to the microfilaments present in the leaf26.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

10 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

11 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

12 CLEMENT Y, BAKSH-COMEAU Y, RAGOO R, SEAFORTH C, 2008
TRAMIL survey. UWI & UTT, Trinidad.

13 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 DELENS M, 1992
Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

18 O'REILLY A, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

19 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

20 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

21 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

22 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

23 ABEGAZ B, YOHANNES P, DIETER R, 1983
Constituents of the essential oil of Ethiopian Cymbopogon citratus. J Nat Prod 46(3):424-426.

24 DE MATOUSCHEK B, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Phytochemical investigation of nonvolatile constituents of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae). Pharm Acta Helv 66(9/10):242-245.

25 HANSON S, CRAWFORD M, KOKER M, MENEZES F, 1976
Cymbopogonol, a new triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus. Phytochemistry 15:1074-1075.

26 YOKOYAMA Y, TSUYUKI T, NAKAMURA N, TAKAHASHI T, HANSON S, MATSUSHITA K, 1980
Revised structures of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol. Tetrahedron Lett 21:3701-3702.

27 OLANIYI A, SOFOWORA E, OGUNTIMEHIN B, 1975
Phytochemical investigation of some Nigerian plants used against fevers. II. Cymbopogon citratus. Planta Med 28:186-189.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p57.

29 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990
Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

30 MORON F, SANCHEZ C, MARTINEZ MC, MOREJON Z, PINEDO Z, 2000
Actividad antiespasmódica in vitro de hojas frescas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de efectos antiinflamatorio y analgésico del extracto fluído de Cymbopogon citratus al 30% por vía oral. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):3-6.

32 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

33 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, DAGUILH R, HENRYS D, HENRYS J, ANTON R, 1986
Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):13-30.

34 CARLINI EA, CONTAR JD, SILVA-FILHO AR, SOLVEIRA-FILHO NG, FROCHTENGARTEN ML, BUENO OF, 1986
Pharmacology of lemon-grass Cymbopogon citratus I. Effect of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):37-64.

35 SOUZA FORMIGONI ML, LODDER HM, FILHO OG, FERREIRA TM, CARLINI EA, 1986
Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero". J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):65-74.

36 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, TOLON Z, 1989
Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 25(1):103-107.

37 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

38 LORENZETTI B, SOUZA G, SARTI S, FILHO DS, FERREIRA SH, 1991
Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34(1):43-48.

39 SETH, G, KOKATE CK, VARMA KC, 1976
Effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on central nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol 14(3):370-371.

40 LEMOS TLG, MATOS FJA, ALENCAR JW, CRAVEIRO AA, CLARK AM, MC CHESNEY JD, 1990
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants. Phytother Res 4(2):82-84.

41 AWUAH R, 1989
Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Ann Appl Biol 115(3):451-453.

42 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

43 KOBAYASHI N, 1989
Pharmaceutical compositions containing lemongrass extracts and antioxidants. Patens Japan Kokai Tokio Koho, 01, 221, 320.

44 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

45 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

46 DE LA TORRE RA, ESPINOSA-AGUIRRE JJ, CORTINAS DE NAVA C, IZQUIERDO T, MORON F, 1994
Genotoxic activity of mebendazole in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 305(2):139-144.

47 PILOTO FERRER J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZALEZ ML, RODRIGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

48 LEITE JR, SEABRA ML, MALUF E, ASSOLANT K, SUCHECKI D, TUFIK S, KLEPACZ S, CALIL HM, CARLINI EA, 1986
Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):75-83.

49 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.
Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

50 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • chadwon beni
  • fit weed

Dominica:

  • chadwon beni
  • fit weed

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • chadwon beni
  • fit weed

Dominican Republic:

  • cilantro ancho
  • koulant

Honduras:

  • culantro

Costa Rica:

  • culantro de coyote
  • spirit weed

Haiti:

  • koulant
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for flatulence, flue, vomiting, chest pain and attacks, palpitations and tiredness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever or vomiting last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The leaf ofEryngium foetidum is widely used for human consumption.

For fever, flatulence, flu and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 20-30 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of leaf in 1L (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.

For infusion, add boiling water to 20-30 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of leaf, cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL) 3 times a day.

For chest pain and attacks, palpitations and tiredness:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

4 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

5 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-1995
Encuestas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

8 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

9 FORGACS P, JACQUEMIN H, MORETTI C, PROVOST J, TOUCHE A, 1983
Etude phytochimique et activités biologiques de 18 plantes de la Guyane Française. Plantes Médicinales Phytothér 17(1):22-32.

10 WONG K, FENG M, SAM T, TAN G, 1994
Composition of the leaf and root oils of Eryngium foetidum L. J Essent Oil Res 6(4):369-374.

11 MUNSELL H, WILLIAMS LO, GUIL LP, TROESCHER CB, NIGHTINGALE G, HARRIS RS, 1950
Composition of food plants of Central America. IV: El Salvador. Food Res 15(4):263-296.

12 ARBAIN D, CANNON JR, AFRIASTINI, KARTAWINATA K, DJAMAL R, BUSTARI A, DHARMA A, ROSMAWATY H, SJAFAR M, SJAIFUL, NAWFA R, KOSELA S, 1989
Survey of some West Sumatran plants for alkaloids. Econ Bot 43(1):73-78.

13 HERRERA J, 1992
Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

14 SARAVIA A, 1992
Estudios sobre plantas TRAMIL. Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

15 GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 1995
Toxicidad aguda de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Farmacognosia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.

16 SAENZ MT, FERNANDEZ MA, GARCIA MD 1997
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties from leaves of Eryngium foetidum L. (Apiaceae). Phytother Res 11:380-383.

17 SIMON O, SINGH N, 1986
Demonstration of anticonvulsant properties of an aqueous extract of spirit weed (Eryngium foetidum). Wi Med J 35(2):121-125.

18 SAUVAIN M, 1989
Etude des plantes antiparasitaires du plancton des Guyanes en Amazonie : antipaludiques et antileishmanioses (Thèse de Doctorat). Université Paris-Sud, Paris, France.

19 CACERES A, SAMAYOA B, 1989
Tamizaje de la actividad antibacteriana de plantas usadas en Guatemala para el tratamiento de afecciones gastrointestinales. Guatemala, Guatemala: Dirección General de Investigaciones, Universidad de San Carlos (DIGI-USAC).

20 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Toxicidad sub-crónica, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Eryngium foetidum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Toxicidad oral, subcrónica en ratones, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de planta entera de Eryngium foetidum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • anni

Dominican Republic:

  • hinojo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed and/or leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach pain, abdominal pain and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for earache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Due to the potential health risks associated with earache, and to determine whether it is caused by middle and/or inner ear infection, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  Its use is contraindicated if symptoms such as ear secretions and/or evidence of perforation of the tympanic membrane are present.

Before any application in the ear, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or further infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should earache last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The seed can cause hypersensitivity and allergic reactions.

The leaf of Foeniculum vulgare is widely used for human consumption and the seed is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach pain, abdominal pain and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 0.3-0.6 grams of dried seed or 3-5 grams of fresh leaves in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot, filter, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day24-25.

For earache:

There is no available information for establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963
Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics & their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

4 AKUNZEMANN J, HERRMANN K, 1977
Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavone-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 164:194-200.

5 HARANATH P, AKTHER M, SHARIF S, 1987
Acetylcholine and choline in common spices. Phytother Res 1(2):91-92.

6 ZOBEL A, BROWN S, 1991
Psoralens on the surface of seeds of Rutaceae and fruits of Umbelliferae and Leguminosae. Can J Bot 69(3):485-488.

7 CESKA O, CHAUDHARY S, WARRINGTON P, ASHWOOD-SMITH M, 1987
Photoactive furocoumarins in fruits of some Umbellifers. Phytochemistry 26(1):165-169.

8 MENDEZ J, CASTRO-POCEIRO J, 1981
Coumarins in Foeniculum vulgare fruits. Rev Latinoamer Quim 12(2):91-92.

9 SALEH N, EL-NEGOUMY S, EL-HADIDI M, HOSNI H, 1983
Comparative study of the flavonoids of some local members of the Umbelliferae. Phytochemistry 22(6):1417-1420.

10 LATTANZIO V, MARCHESINI A, 1981
Determination of plant phenols by gel filtration. J Food Sci 46(6):1907-1909.

11 HARBONE J, BOARDLEY M, 1984
Use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the separation of flavonol glycosides and flavonol sulphates. J Chromatogr 299(2):377-385.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p75.

13 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

14 MALINI T, VANITHAKUMARI G, MEGALA N, ANUSYA S, DEVI K, ELANGO V, 1985
Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 29(1):21-26.

15 MASCOLO N, AUTORE G, CAPASSO F, MENGHINI A, FASULO MP, 1987
Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytother Res 1(1):28-31.

16 DUKE JA, 1988
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

18 ALBERT PULEO M, 1980
Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. J Ethnopharmacol 2(4):337-344.

19 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990
Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

20 ALFONSO H, 1992
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill y Cassia occidentalis L. en cobayos. Informe tramil. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal CENSA, La Habana, Cuba.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria del zumo de hojas frescas machacadas y exprimidas mediante gasa de Foeniculum vulgaris Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Foeniculum vulgare Miller. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

23 SHAH A, QURESHI S, AGEEL A, 1991
Toxicity studies in mice of ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare fruit and Ruta chalepensis aerial parts. J Ethnopharmacol 34(2/3):167-172.

24 HUSSAIN RA, POVEDA LJ, PEZZUTO JM, SOEJARTO DD, KINGHORN AD, 1990
Sweetening agents of plant origin: phenylpropanoid constituents of seven sweet-tasting plants. Econ Bot 44(2):174-182.

25 SEETHARAM K, PASRICHA J, 1987
Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

26 ASSOCIATION SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE, 1983
British herbal pharmacopœia. Bournemouth, England: British Herbal Medicine Association.

27 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • mant

Guadeloupe:

  • mant
  • mant

Saint Martin:

  • mant

Dominica:

  • peppermint

Cuba:

  • toronjil
  • toronjil de menta

Panama:

  • yerba buena

Venezuela:

  • yerba buena
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3-4,37

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

7 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

10 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

11 KRAPP K, LONGE J, 2005
Enciclopedia de las Medicinas Alternativas. Editorial Océano, Barcelona, pp:1017-1021.

12 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985
Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

13 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha x piperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

14 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967
Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

15 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

16 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

17 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990
Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

18 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981
Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

19 ARUMUGAM P, GAYATRI N, SUBATHRA M, RAMESH A, 2008
Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):92-95.

20 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

21 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

22 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988
Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993
Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991
Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996
Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

30 PARRA AL, CAPO JT, MONTALVO RV, GONZALEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cub Plantas Med 1(4):26-28.

31 MICROMEDEX T, 2003
Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

32 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

33 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

34 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

35 WICHTL M, 1999
Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • mant

Guadeloupe:

  • mant
  • mant

Saint Martin:

  • mant

Dominica:

  • peppermint

Cuba:

  • toronjil
  • toronjil de menta

Panama:

  • yerba buena

Venezuela:

  • yerba buena
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3-4,37

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

7 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

10 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

11 KRAPP K, LONGE J, 2005
Enciclopedia de las Medicinas Alternativas. Editorial Océano, Barcelona, pp:1017-1021.

12 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985
Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

13 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha x piperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

14 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967
Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

15 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

16 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

17 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990
Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

18 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981
Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

19 ARUMUGAM P, GAYATRI N, SUBATHRA M, RAMESH A, 2008
Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):92-95.

20 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

21 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

22 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988
Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993
Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991
Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996
Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

30 PARRA AL, CAPO JT, MONTALVO RV, GONZALEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cub Plantas Med 1(4):26-28.

31 MICROMEDEX T, 2003
Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

32 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

33 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

34 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

35 WICHTL M, 1999
Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • albahaca vaca

Haiti:

  • atiyayo
  • gwo fonbazen

Guatemala:

  • basen

Saint Lucia:

  • vanne van
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for abdominal pain and flatulence, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should abdominal pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for torsalo (myiasis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum are widely used for human consumption.

For abdominal pain and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  In case of decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot (possibly, with a pinch of salt).  For infusion, add boiling water to the leaves, cover and leave to cool.  Filter and drink 1 cup 3 times per day.

For abdominal pain, there is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage regarding the leaf juice other than that referred to by traditional use.

For torsalo (myiasis):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

4 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 ZAMUREENKO VA, TOKAREVA VY, KLYUEV NA, KARPOVA TI, GRANDBERG TI, 1981
Identification of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum L. Izv Timiryazevsk S-Kh Akad 1981(4):153-155.

7 NTEZURUBANZA L, SCHEFFER JJC, BAERHEIM-SVENDSEN A, 1987
Composition of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum grown in Rwanda. Planta Med 53(5):421-423.

8 ARCTANDER S, 1960
Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. Elizabeth, USA: Stephen Arctander.

9 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

10 MAIA JGS, RAMOS LS, LUZ AIR, DA SILVA ML, ZOGHBI MG, 1988
Uncommon Brazilian essential oils of the Labiatae and Compositae. In: Flavors and fragrance: a world perspective, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Essential Oils. Lawrence BM, Mookherjee BD, Willis BJ, Eds. New York, USA: Elsevier Sci Publ. pp:177-188.

11 JANSSEN AM, SCHEFFER JJC, NTEZURUBANZA L, SVENDSEN AB, 1989
Antimicrobial activities of some Ocimum species grown in Rwanda. J Ethnopharmacol 26(1):57-63.

12 NIGAM M, KHOSLA MK, BRADU BL, TANDON N, 1988
Hydration of terpene fraction of "clocimum" oil and isolation of pure myrcene. Parfume Kosmet 69(5):285-286.

13 OFFIAH VN, CHIKWENDU UA, 1999
Antidiarrhoeal effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol 68(1-3):327-330.

14 AZIBA PI, BASS D, ELEGBE Y, 1999
Pharmacological investigation of Ocimum gratissimum in rodents. Phytother Res 13(5):427-429.

15 NJOKU CJ, ASUZU IU, 1998
The anthelmintic effects of the leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.). Phytomedicine 5(6):485-488.

16 MADEIRA SV, MATOS FJ, LEAL-CARDOSO JH, CRIDDLE DN, 2002
Relaxant effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum on isolated ileum of the guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 81(1):1-4.

17 ORAFIDIYA LO, AGBANI EO, OYEDELE AO, BABALOLA OO, ONAYEMI O, 2002
Preliminary clinical tests on topical preparations of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. leaf essential oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clinical Drug Investigation 22(5):313-319.

18 ORAFIDIYA LO, AGBANI EO, ABEREOJE OA, AWE T, ABUDU A, FAKOYA FA, 2003
An investigation into the wound-healing properties of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. J Wound Care 12(9):331-334.

19 PEREIRA SL, DE OLIVEIRA JW, ANGELO KK, DA COSTA AM, COSTA F, 2011
Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum on plaque and gingivitis control. J Contemp Dent Pract 12(5):350-355.

20 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. White House Station, New Jersey, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p1676.

21 ONAJOBI FD, 1986
Smooth muscle contracting lipid-soluble principles in chromatographic actions of Ocimum gratissimum. J Ethnopharmacol 18(1):3-11.

22 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) de decocción de hojas frescas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

23 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2002
Clases toxicas agudas de decocción (30%) de hojas frescas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

24 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) de extracto fluido 30% de hojas secas de Ocimum gratissimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”. La Habana, Cuba.

25 GUERRA MJ, LÓPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de extracto fluido 30% de hojas secas de Ocimum gratisimum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 LOGARTO A, SILVA R, GUERRA I, IGLESIAS L, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

27 LOGARTO A, TILLAN J, VEGA R, GONZÁLEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(1):26-28.

28 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

29 PILOTO J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCÍA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZÁLEZ ML, RODRÍGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.