headhache

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Honduras:

  • altamisa

Panama:

  • altamisa

Dominican Republic:

  • artamisa
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fresh leaf, applied locally3

leaf, maceration in alcohol, rubbed locally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to available information:

Use for colic, stomach pain and headache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The pollen deposited on the stem and leaves may cause reactions of hypersensitivity.
Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the colic or stomach pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the presence of allergenic pollen in the stem and leaves, wash vegetal material before use.

For colic, stomach pain and headache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 SOLÍS P, CORREA M, GUPTA MP, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

4 SOLÍS PN, VASQUEZ Y, AYALA H, GUPTA MP, 2002
Validación de algunas plantas tramil. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 GOLDSBY G, BURKE BA, 1987
Sesquiterpene lactones and a sesquiterpene diol from Jamaican Ambrosia peruviana. Phytochemistry 26(4):1059-1063.

6 HERZ W, ANDERSON GD, GIBAJA S, RAULAIS D, 1969
Sesquiterpene lactones of some Ambrosia species. Phytochemistry 8(5):877-881.

7 YÁNEZ CA , RIOS N. MORA F, ROJAS L, DÍAZ T, VELASCO J, RIOS N, MELÉNDEZ P, 2011
Composición quimica y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ambrosia peruviana Willd. de los llanos venezolanos. Rev Peru Biol 18(2):149-151.

8 SOUZA BRITO A, 1995
Toxicidad aguda - dosis repetidas. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Fisiología y Biofísica, Universidad de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

9 BUZNEGO MT, LLANIO M, FERNÁNDEZ M, LEÓN N, ACEVEDO M, PÉREZ H, 1998
Perfil neurofarmacológico de la Ambrosia paniculata (Willd) O.E. Schulz (Artemisa). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 3(1):42-45.

10 PAZOS L, COTO T, 2011
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja de Ambrosia peruviana. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

11 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, hoja fresca, de Ambrosia peruviana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, hoja macerada en alcohol 94%, de Ambrosia peruviana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • bruja

Haiti:

  • fey choche
  • lou gawou

Guatemala:

  • hoja del aire

Honduras:

  • hoja del aire

Colombia:

  • leaf of life
  • tree of life

Costa Rica:

  • leaf of life

Martinique:

  • zèb maltèt
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  crushed leaf, applied on forehead1-4

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

The use as an amulet against vomiting is a traditional cultural use and is not classified in the TRAMIL program.

According to published and other information:

Use for cough is categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for headache and cold are categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, validation, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the cold last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or in children.

For topical use for headache and oral use for cold and cough:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

5 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

7 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

8 PINZON M, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Isla de San Andrés). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

9 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

10 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

11 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1971
Flavonoid glycosides from Kalanchoe pinnata. Planta Med 20(4):368-373.

12 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1973
Phenolic components from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata. Planta Med 23(12):149-153.

13 YAMAGISHI T, YAN X, WU R, MC PHAIL D, MC PHAIL A, LEE K, 1988
Structure and stereochemistry of bryophyllin-A, a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Chem Pharm Bull 36(4):1615-1617.

14 YAN XZ, LEE KS, YAMAGISHI T, 1992
Isolation and identification of cytotoxic components from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Shanghai Yike Daxue Xuebao 19(3):206-208.

15 AKIHISA T, KOKKE W, TAMURA T, MATSUMOTO T, 1991
Sterols of Kalanchoe pinnata: first report of the isolation of both C-24 epimers of 24-alkyl-delta-25-sterols from a higher plant. Lipids 26(8):660-665.

16 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1972
Alkanes, alkanols, triterpenes and sterols from Kalanchoe pinnata. Phytochemistry 11(4):1500-1502.

17 SIDDIQUI S, FAIZI S, SIDDIQUI B, SULTANA N, 1989
Triterpenoids and phenanthrenes from leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Phytochemistry 28(9):2433-2438.

18 BULEN WA, VARNER JE, BURRELL RC, 1952
Separation of organic acids from plant tissues. Anal Chem 24:187-190.

19 PAL S, SEN T, CHAUDHURI AK, 1999
Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(3):313-318.

20 HEMA D, TIDJANI M, BASSENE E, POUSSET JL, GIONO-BARBER H, 1986
African medicinal plants. XXIV. Study of the antiinflammatory activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Plant Med Phytother 20(3):231-235.

21 FENG PC, HAYNES L, MAGNUS K, PLIMMER J, SHERRATT H, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14(1):556-561.

22 ANDRONOVA L, 1972
Antitussive properties of certain medical plants. Rast Resur 8:588-591.

23 BERSHTEJN E, 1972
Utilisation du jus de Kalanchoe pinnata dans le traitement des ulcères trophiques de la jambe. Vest Khir URSS 108(3):116-118.

24 SVANIDZE N, LANOVENKLY V, SÁNCHEZ A, RODRÍGUEZ P, 1975
Kalanchoe pinnata como planta medicinal en Cuba. Rev Cub Farm 9(3):225-228.

25 BOAKYE-YIADOM K, 1977
Antimicrobial properties of some West African medicinal plants. 1. Antimicrobial action of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Quart J Crude Res 15(4):201-202.

26 PERRY LM, METZGER J, 1980
Medicinal plants of East and Southeast Asia: attributed properties and uses. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.

27 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

28 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS Herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratones, de la hoja de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso del zumo de la hoja de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca machacada de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 YOKEL R, OGZEWALLA CD, 1981
Effects of plant ingestion in rats determined by the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Toxicon 19(2):223-232.

33 BHAKUNI O, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7(4):250-262.

34 PAL S, SEN T, CHAUDHURI AKN,1999
Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(3):313-318.

35 REPPAS GP, 1995
Bryophyllum pinnatum poisoning of cattle. Aust Vet J 72(11):425-427.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • valeriana

Honduras:

  • valeriana

Haiti:

  • vetivè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf and root, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982
Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21(3):793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997
New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996
New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989
Extraction of khusimol and other components from Vetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CÁCERES A, GONZÁLEZ S, GIRÓN L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996
Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958
Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 HIRUMA-LIMA CA, SOUZA BRITO AR, 2002
Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982
Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • valeriana

Honduras:

  • valeriana

Haiti:

  • vetivè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf and root, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982
Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21(3):793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997
New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996
New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989
Extraction of khusimol and other components from Vetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CÁCERES A, GONZÁLEZ S, GIRÓN L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCÍA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989
Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004
Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996
Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958
Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 HIRUMA-LIMA CA, SOUZA BRITO AR, 2002
Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

22 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZÁLEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982
Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

French Guiana:

  • citron
  • citron vert

Panama:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Venezuela:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Colombia:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Puerto Rico:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Honduras:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • lime

Dominica:

  • lime

Dominican Republic:

  • limón, limón agrio, lima

Martinique:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Guadeloupe:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi
  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè

Saint Martin:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Haiti:

  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1-3,10

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

4 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

5 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

8 HAY YO, 1998
Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

9 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

10 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

11 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

12 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

13 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

18 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

19 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press. p45.

20 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986
Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

21 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOZA A, VASQUEZ Y, GUPTA MP, 2005Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. var. mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

24 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

25 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

26 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

27 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

28 ADESINA S, 1982
Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

29 GUPTA M, 1987
Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México: Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

31 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

37 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009
Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989
Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

40 PELLECUER J, 1995
Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Cuba:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Mexico:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Puerto Rico:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Dominican Republic:

  • naranja agria, naranja de babor

Martinique:

  • oranger amer
  • zowanj anmè

Grenada:

  • sour orange

Haiti:

  • zowanj gospo
  • zowanj si
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3-4

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

2 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

7 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986
The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

10 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992
Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

11 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991
Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

12 WIDMER WW, 1991
Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

13 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990
Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

14 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M, 1990
Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

15 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

16 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975
Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

17 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

18 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

19 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

20 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983
The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000
Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

23 SANKAWA U, 1980
Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

24 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979
Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

25 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995
Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

26 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980
Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

27 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986
Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

28 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997
The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

29 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996
Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

30 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996
Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

31 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 GARCIA-GONZALEZ M, FALLAS LV, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009 Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 PENZAK SR, JANN MW, COLD JA, HON YY, DESAI HD, GURLEY BJ, 2001Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol 41(10):1059-1063.

37 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

38 CALAPAI G, FIRENZUOLI F, SAITTA A, SQUADRITO F, ARLOTTA MR, COSTANTINO G, INFERRERA G, 1999Antiobesity and cardiovascular toxic effects of Citrus aurantium extracts in the rat: a preliminary report. Fitoterapia 70(6):586-592.

39 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000
Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis. Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

40 SATO A, 1989
Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

41 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982
Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

42 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982
Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

43 STOHS SJ, PREUSS HG, 2010
The safety of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and p-synephrine. HerbalGram 89:34-39.

44 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • naranja dulce (ou china)

Haiti:

  • zowanj
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to available information:

Use for conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough, headache, sprains, strain and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In any application to the eye, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk or increasing irritation with the application of Citrus spp juice.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus sinensis are widely used for human consumption and are an industrial source of essential oil.

For headache, flu and fever:

Prepare decoction or infusion with 5-20 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to the 5-20 grams of leaf, cover pot and cool down.  Drink 2-3 cups a day36.

For conjunctivitis:

Instill (apply) in the eye 2-3 drops of fresh juice of fruit, 3 times a day.

For diarrhea, flu, cough, sprain, twist and fever:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI AM, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1984
Influence of the fruit juice of several Citrus species on steroidogenesis in the rat. Plant Med Phytother 18(1):8-14.

4 STEWART I, 1985
Identification of caffeine in Citrus flowers and leaves. J Agric Food Chem 33(6):1163-1165.

5 NICO KJ, CHANDLER BV, 1978
Roots as a probable site for Citrus limonoid biosynthesis. International Citrus Congress, Sydney, Australia. International Society of Citriculture 1:40-42.

6 ABDEL-ALIM MA, ABDEL-HAFEZ OM, EL-KHRISY AM, 1990
The constituents of Citrus sinensis leaves. Fitoterapia 61(5):470-471.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982
Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOIU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1990
Nigerian sweet orange leaf oil composition. J Essent Oil Res 2(5):199-201.

9 GUANGHAN L, YU W, LEIMING Y, SHUANGLONG H, 1994
Determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by stripping voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode. Food Chem 51(2):237-239.

10 RADFORD T, KAWASHIMA K, FRIEDEL PK, POPE LE, GIANTURCO MA, 1975
Distribution of volatile compounds between the pulp and serum of some fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1066.

11 ROUSEFF RL, SEETHARAMAN K, NAIM M, NAGY S, ZEHAVI U, 1992
Improved HPLC determination of hydroxycinnamic acids in orange juice using solvents containing thf. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1139-1143.

12 SWATSITANG P, TUCKER G, ROBARDS K, JARDINE D, 2000
Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds in Citrus sinensis. Anal Chim Acta 417(2):231-240.

13 OOGHE WC, OOGHE SJ, DETAVERNIER M, HUYGHEBAERT A, 1995
Characterization of orange juice (Citrus sinensis) by polymethoxylated flavones. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2191-2195.

14 OOGHE WC, DETAVERNIER CM, 1999
Flavonoids as authenticity markers for Citrus sinensis juice. Fruit Process 9(8):308-313.

15 WIDMER WW, 2000
Determination of naringin and neohesperidin in orange juice by liquid chromatography with UV detection to detect the presence grapefruit juice: collaborative study. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem Int 83(5):1155-1165.

16 GROSS J, CARMON M, LIFSHITZ A, SKLARZ B, 1975
Structural elucidation of some orange juice carotenoids. Phytochemistry 14(1):249-252.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Tránsito Intestinal en ratones, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

19 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS JI, 1978
Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35(6):1219-1220.

20 PEREZ C, ANESINI C, 1994
In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):41-46.

21 KAWAKAMI M, SUZUKI K, ISHIZUKA T, HIDAKA T, MATSUKI Y, NAKAMURA H, 1998
Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36(6):306-308.

22 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

23 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman, Las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9ª edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editores. pp1670-1671.

24 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, de hojas frescas de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

25 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 MIYAGI Y, OM AS, CHEE KM, BENNINK MR, 2000
Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice. Nutr Cancer 36(2):224-229.

27 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989
Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

28 PORTAL JA, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, BETANCOURT J, 1995
Estudio genotóxico in vitro de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Medi Ciego 1(1):3-6.

29 PORTAL JA, 1995
Evaluación genotóxica in vitro e in vivo de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

30 PELLECUER J, 1995
Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

31 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Citrus sinensis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • koray
  • koway
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, natural, applied on the head1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for headache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should headache last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996

Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

3 ESPOSITO-AVELLA M, GUPTA M, 1986
Evaluación fitoquímica y farmacológica de Hamelia patens y Terminalia catappa. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

4 ESPOSITO-AVELLA M, BROWN P, TEJEIRA I, BUITRAGO R, BARRIOS L, SANCHEZ C, GUPTA MP, CEDENO J, 1985
Pharmacological screening of Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Int J Crude Drug Res 23(1):17-25.

5 REYES-CHILPA R, RIVERA J, OROPEZA M, MENDOZA P, AMEKRAZ B, JANKOWSKI C, CAMPOS M, 2004
Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Biol Pharm Bull 27(10):1617-1620.

6 RIPPERGER H, 1977
Isolation of isopteropodine from Hamelia patens. Pharmazie 32(H7):415-416.

7 BORGES DEL CASTILLO J, MANRESA MT, RODRIGUEZ F, 1981
Oxindole alkaloids from Hamelia patens Jacq. Proc 1st Int. Conf. Chem. Biotechnol. Biol. Acta Nat. Prod., Sofia, Bulgaria. Bulgarian Acad Sci Sofia 3(1):70-73.

8 CHAUDHURI PK, THAKUR RS, 1991
Hamelia patens, a new source of ephedrine. Planta Med 57(2):199.

9 ADAMS AA, LEE EF, MABRY TJ, 1989
HPLC study of oxindole alkaloids from Hamelia patens. Rev Latinoamer Quim 20(2):71-72.

10 AQUINO R, CIAVATTA L, DE SIMONE F, PIZZA C, 1990
A flavanone glycoside from Hamelia patens. Phytochemistry 29(7):2358-2360.

11 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO-AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 MISAS C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31(1):5-12.

13 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Apuntes científicos. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

14 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

15 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

16 DUKE J, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 LAMAISON J, PETITJEAN-FREYTET C, CARNAT A, 1990
Rosmarinic acid, total hydroxycinnamic derivative contents and antioxidant activity of medicinal Apiaceae, Boraginaceae & Lamiceae. Ann Pharm Fr 48(2):103-108.

18 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, GARCIA AI, 2011
Ausencia de irritabilidad dérmica primaria de decocción de hoja seca de Hamelia patens (ponasí). Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

19 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, GARCIA AI, 2011
Ausencia de irritabilidad dérmica primaria de decocción de flor de Hamelia patens (ponasí). Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • koray
  • koway
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, natural, for baths1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for headache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should headache last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996

Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

3 ESPOSITO-AVELLA M, GUPTA M, 1986
Evaluación fitoquímica y farmacológica de Hamelia patens y Terminalia catappa. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

4 ESPOSITO-AVELLA M, BROWN P, TEJEIRA I, BUITRAGO R, BARRIOS L, SANCHEZ C, GUPTA MP, CEDENO J, 1985
Pharmacological screening of Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Int J Crude Drug Res 23(1):17-25.

5 REYES-CHILPA R, RIVERA J, OROPEZA M, MENDOZA P, AMEKRAZ B, JANKOWSKI C, CAMPOS M, 2004
Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Biol Pharm Bull 27(10):1617-1620.

6 RIPPERGER H, 1977
Isolation of isopteropodine from Hamelia patens. Pharmazie 32(H7):415-416.

7 BORGES DEL CASTILLO J, MANRESA MT, RODRIGUEZ F, 1981
Oxindole alkaloids from Hamelia patens Jacq. Proc 1st Int. Conf. Chem. Biotechnol. Biol. Acta Nat. Prod., Sofia, Bulgaria. Bulgarian Acad Sci Sofia 3(1):70-73.

8 CHAUDHURI PK, THAKUR RS, 1991
Hamelia patens, a new source of ephedrine. Planta Med 57(2):199.

9 ADAMS AA, LEE EF, MABRY TJ, 1989
HPLC study of oxindole alkaloids from Hamelia patens. Rev Latinoamer Quim 20(2):71-72.

10 AQUINO R, CIAVATTA L, DE SIMONE F, PIZZA C, 1990
A flavanone glycoside from Hamelia patens. Phytochemistry 29(7):2358-2360.

11 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO-AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 MISAS C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31(1):5-12.

13 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Apuntes científicos. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

14 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

15 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

16 DUKE J, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

17 LAMAISON J, PETITJEAN-FREYTET C, CARNAT A, 1990
Rosmarinic acid, total hydroxycinnamic derivative contents and antioxidant activity of medicinal Apiaceae, Boraginaceae & Lamiceae. Ann Pharm Fr 48(2):103-108.

18 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, GARCIA AI, 2011
Ausencia de irritabilidad dérmica primaria de decocción de hoja seca de Hamelia patens (ponasí). Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

19 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, GARCIA AI, 2011
Ausencia de irritabilidad dérmica primaria de decocción de flor de Hamelia patens (ponasí). Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • mannyòk
  • manyok

Martinique:

  • mannyòk
  • manyok

Dominican Republic:

  • yuca
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, mashed, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for headache and dermal fungal growths such as athlete's foot (mycosis between fingers or toes) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application against fungal growth (mycosis between fingers or toes), due care should be taken in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The leaf can cause hypersensitivity reactions.

Manihot esculentashould not be ingested by persons with thyroid disorders4.

The cooked tuber of Manihot esculenta is widely used as a vegetable and a source of starch.

For fungal growth (mycosis between fingers or toes) and headache:

Wash leaf thoroughly, crush, and apply 5-10 grams on the affected area of the skin twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 LINDNER E, 1995
Toxicología de los alimentos. 4ª ed. Madrid, España: Editorial Acribia S.A. p688.

4 ROSA DE BATTISTI C, TELES FFF, COELHO DT, JOSE DA SILVEIRA A, BATISTA CM, 1981
Determination of hydrogen cyanide toxicity and total soluble carbohydrates in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Rev Ceres 28:521-525.

5 PRAWAT H, MAHIDOL C, RUCHIRAWAT S, PRAWAT U, TUNTIWACHWUT-TIKUL P, TOOPTAKONG U, TAYLOR WC, PAKAWATCHAI C, SKELETON BW, WHITE AH, 1995
Cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic glycosides from Manihot esculenta. Phytochemistry 40(4):1167-1173.

6 VALYASEVI A, DHANAMITTA S, 1974
Studies of bladder stone disease in Thailand. XVII. Effect of exogenous sources of oxalate on crystalluria. Amer J Clin Nutr 27(8):877-882.

7 KAMIL M, ILYAS M, RAHMAN W, OKIGAWA M, KAWANO N, 1994
Biflavones from Manihot utilissima. Phytochemistry 13(11):2619-2620.

8 SUBRAMANIAN SS, NAGARAJAN S, SULOCHANA N, 1971
Flavonoids of some Euphorbiaceous plants. Phytochemistry 10(10):2548-2549.

9 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

10 CACERES A, 2000
Actividad antibiótica in vitro del zumo de hoja fresca de Manihot esculenta. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

11 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la maceración al 50% de las hojas frescas de Manihot esculenta. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

12 MACRAE WD, HUDSON JB, TOWERS GH, 1988
Studies on the pharmacological activity of Amazonian Euphorbiaceae. J Ethnopharmacol 22(2):143-172.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja machacada de Manihot esculenta. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p687.

15 MADUAGWU EN, UMOH IB, 1982
Detoxification of cassava leaves by simple traditional methods. Toxicol Lett 10(2-3):245-248.