asthma

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • aloe

Barbados:

  • aloe

Guadeloupe:

  • lalwé

Puerto Rico:

  • sábila

Venezuela:

  • sábila
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

“crystal”, liquefied, decoction or infusion, administered orally1,69

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for asthma, colds, baldness, cuts, bounds and skin rashes is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented inthe TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and published scientific information.

Due to the health risks related to asthma, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this plant remedy should be considered complementary to medical treatment.  There is no available information about its use for asthmatic crisis.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for oral administration to  pregnant or lactating women or to children under 5 years of age.  The use of this resource should be avoided in cases of diabetes mellitus.

The gel can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  It should not be used if it has turned a reddish color.

When cutting out the gelatinous part of the leaf, avoid contact with the yellow juice.  This juice can cause reactions of skin hypersensitivity or, if swallowed, it can have laxative effects.

Use for asthma or colds:

Peal the leaf and blend 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of the “crystal” (gel, pulp, mesophyll) with 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-30 grams of gel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of gel, cover, and let cool.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For baldness, cuts, bounds and skin rashes:

Wash and peal the leaf, cut 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of gel and apply to affected area of skin or scalp, twice a day.

1 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

2 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

7 MEDLINE PLUS 2009
Aloe (Aloe vera L.) U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. URL: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-aloe.html

8 GRUENWALD J, BRENDLER T, JAENICKE C, 2004
Physicians’ Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare, Inc. 988pp.

9 DUKE’S PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASES 2009
www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

10 HOLDSWORTH DK, 1971
Chromones in Aloe species. Part I. Aloesin-A C-glucosyl-7-hydroxychromone. Planta Med 19:322-325.

11 MARY NY, CHRISTENSEN BV, BEAL JL, 1956
A paper chromatographic study of Aloe, aloin and cascara sagrada. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 45:229-232.

12 PASZKIEWICZ-GADEK A, CHLABICZ J, GALASINSKI W, 1988
The influence of selected potential oncostatics of plant origin on the protein biosynthesis in vitro. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 40(2):183-190.

13 RAUWALD H, 1987
New hydroxyaloins: the periodate-positive substance from cape aloes and cinnamoyl esters from Curacao aloes. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 9(4):215.

14 ZWAVING JH, ELEMA ET, 1976
A comparative investigation of two methods for the determination of 1,8-dihydroxyanthracene derivatives in vegetable drugs. Pharm Weekb (Sci Ed) 111:1315.

15 WALLER GR, MANGIAFICO S, RITCHEY CR, 1978
A chemical investigation of Aloe barbadensis. Proc Okla Acad Sci 58:69.

16 WALLER GR, MANGIAFICO S, RITCHEY CR, CUMBERLAND CD, 1978
Natural products from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Lloydia 41:648A.

17 SUGA T, HIRATA T, 1983
The efficacy of the Aloe plants chemical constituents and biological activities. Cosmet Toiletries 98(6):105-108.

18 GUARDARRAMA I, HERNÁNDEZ M, DÍAZ-ACOSTA A, CARBALLO A, 1993
Observaciones clínicas sobre el efecto del Aloe barbadensis L. en el tratamiento de pacientes asmáticos. Estudio preliminar. Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas, Santa Clara, Cuba.

19 GUARDARRAMA I, TORRES O, HERNÁNDEZ M, RUIZ MM, GÓMEZ M, CLAVO Y, 1994
Prueba de hiperreactividad bronquial a la carbacolina en pacientes asmáticos tratados con Aloe barbadensis. Medicentro 10(1):93-101.

20 MARTÍNEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, ALONSO N, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antimicrobiana de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Aloe vera (sábila). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(3):18-20.

21 HEGGERS JP, PINELESS GR, ROBSON MC, 1979
Dermaide Aloe/Aloe vera gel: Comparison of the antimicrobial effects. J Amer Med Technol 41:293-294.

22 GOTTSHALL RY, LUCAS E, LICKFELDT A, ROBERTS J, 1949
The occurrence of antibacterial substances active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in seed plants. J Clin Invest 28:920-923.

23 LORENZETTI LJ, SALISBURY R, BEAL JL, BALDWIN JN, 1964
Bacteriostatic property of Aloe vera. J Pharm Sci 53:1287.

24 MOHSIN A, SHAH AH, AL-YAHYA MA, TARIQ M, TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, 1989
Analgesic antipyretic activity and phytochemical screening of some plants used in traditional Arab system of medicine. Fitoterapia 60(2):174-177.

25 FURONES JA, MORÓN FJ, PINEDO Z, 1996
Acción analgésica de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Aloe vera L. en ratones. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):15-17.

26 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, BYRNE ME, 1989
Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 79(11):559-562.

27 YAGI A, SHIDA T, NISHIMURA H, 1987
Effect of amino acids in Aloe extract on phagocytosis by peripheral neutrophil in adult bronchial asthma. Jap J Allergol 36(12):1094-1101.

28 ATHERTON P, 1998
First aid plant. Chem Brit 34(5):33-36.

29 NAKAYAMA T, 1993
Hair cosmetics containing Aloe extract. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-05 331,024:3. Chemical Abstracts 12191297H.

30 EL ZAWAHRY M, HEGAZY MR, HELAL M, 1973
Use of Aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. Int J Dermatol 12:68-73.

31 KAVOUSSI H, KAVOUSSI HP, 1993
Saturated solution of purified sodium chloride in purified Aloe vera for inducing and stimulating hair growth and for decreasing hair loss. Patent - USA: 5,215,760.

32 BUNYAPRAPHATSARA N, JIRAKULCAIWONG S, THIRAWARAPAN S, MANONUKUL J, 1996
The efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of first, second and third degree burns in mice. Phytomedicine 2(3):247-251.

33 ROWE TD, LOVELL BK, PARKS LM, 1941
Further observations on the use of Aloe vera leaf in the treatment of third degree X-ray reactions. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 30:266-269.

34 SAMBOONWONG J, THANAMITTRAMANEE S, JARIYAPONGSKUL A, PATUMRAJ S, 2000
Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats. J of the Medical Association of Thailand 83(4):417-425.

35 DAVIS RH, DONATO J, HARTMAN G, HAAS R, 1994
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 84(2):77-81.

36 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, 1987
Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera as measured by ear swelling. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 77(11):610-612.

37 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, 1988
Aloe vera. A natural approach for treating wounds, edema and pain in diabetes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 78(2):60-68.

38 DAVIS RH, KABBANI JM, MARO NP, 1987
Aloe vera and wound healing. J Amer Podiatr Med Ass 77(4):165-169.

39 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, BYRNE ME, 1989
Anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera against a spectrum of irritants. J Amer Podiatr Med Ass 79(6):263-276.

40 DAVIS RH, AGNEW PS, SHAPIRO E, 1986
Antiarthritic activity of anthraquinones found in Aloe for podiatric medicine. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 76:61-66.

41 STRICKLAND FM, PELLEY RP, KRIPKE ML, 1994
Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity by Aloe barbadensis gel extracts. J Invest Dermatol 102(2):197-204.

42 LEE CK, HAN SS, MO YK, KIM RS, CHUNG MH, PARK YI, LEE SK, KIM YS, 1997
Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel component. Immunopharmacology 37(2/3):153-162.

43 RODRÍGUEZ-BIGAS M, CRUZ NI, SUÁREZ A, 1988
Comparative evaluation of Aloe vera in the management of burn wounds in guinea pigs. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:386-389.

44 KIVETT WF, 1989
Aloe vera for burns. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 83:195.

45 DAVIS RH, DI DONATO JJ, JOHNSON RW, STEWART CB, 1994
Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 84(12):614-621.

46 LUSHBAUGH CC, HALE DB, 1953
Experimental acute radiodermatitis following beta irradiation. V. Histopathological study of the mode of action of therapy with Aloe vera. Cancer 6:690-698.

47 ROVATTI B, BRENNAN RJ, 1959
Experimental thermal burns. Induct Med Surg 28:364.

48 NORTHWAY RB, 1975
Experimental use of Aloe vera extract in clinical practice. Vet Med Small Animal Clinic 70:89.

49 COBBLE HH, 1975
Stabilized Aloe vera gel. Patent - USA: 3,892,853.

50 FULTON JE, 1990
The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized Aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 16(5):460-467.

51 DAVIS RH, KABBANI JM, MARO NP, 1986
Wound healing and antiinflammatory activity of Aloe vera. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences 60:79.

52 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, MARO NP, 1987
Biological activity of Aloe vera. Med Sci Res 15:235.

53 LANG L, FEAKINS RM, GOLDTHORPE S, HOLT H, TSIRONI E, DE SILVA A, JEWELL DP, RAMPTON DS, 2004
Randomized, bouble-blind, placebo-controlled triall of oral Aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 19(7):739-747.

54 THOMPSON JE, 1991
Topical use of Aloe vera derived Allantoin gel in otolaryngology. Ear Nose Throat J 70(2):119.

55 LEÓN JE, ROSALES V, ROSALES RA, PAVÓN V, 1999
Actividad antiinflamatoria y cicatrizante del ungüento rectal de Aloe vera L (sábila). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 4(3):106-109.

56 SARABIA JEL, CLARES VPR, CLARES RAR, HERNÁNDEZ VP, 1999
Actividad antiinflamatoria y cicatrizante del unguento rectal de Aloe vera L. (Sabila) Rev Cubana Plant Med 3(3):106-109.

57 VISUTHIKOSOL V, CHOWCHUEN B, SUKWANARAT Y, SRIURAIRATANA S, BOONPUCKNAVIG V, 1995
Effect of Aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 78(8):403-409.

58 CREWE JE, 1939
Aloes in the treatment of burns and scalds. Minnesota Med 22:538-539.

59 HORMANN HP, KORTING HC, 1994
Evidence for the efficacy and safety of topical herbal drugs in dermatology: Part I: Anti-inflammatory agents. Phytomedicine 1(2):161-171.

60 LEUNG AY, 1977 
Aloe vera in cosmetics. Drug Cosmet Ind 120:34.

61 BERNHARD JD, 1988
Aloe vera and vitamin E as dermatologic remedies. J Amer Med Ass 259(1):101.

62 COLLINS CE, COLLINS C, 1935
Roentgen dermatitis treated with fresh whole leaf of Aloe vera. Amer J Roentgen 33:396.

63 LOVEMAN AB, 1937
Leaf of Aloe vera in treatment of roentgen ray ulcers: report on two additional cases. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 36:838.

64 WRIGHT CS, 1936
Aloe vera in the treatment of roentgen ulcers and telangiectasis. J Amer Med Ass 106:1363-1364.

65 BARNES TC, 1947
The healing action of extracts of Aloe vera leaf on abrasions of human skin. Amer J Bot 34:597.

66 KESTEN B, MC LAUGHLIN R, 1936
Roentgen ray dermatitis treated with ointment containing viosterol. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 34:901-903.

67 MARET RH, COBBLE HR, 1975
Extracts of Aloe vera. Patent-US-3,878,197. Chemical Abstracts 8348187G.

68 MAENTHAISONG R, CHAIYAKUNAPRUK N, NIRUNTRAPORN S, KONGKAEW C, 2007
The efficacy of Aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review. Burns 33(6):713-718.

69 DAVIS RH, 1996
Aloe plant for promotion of wound healing. Patent-US-5,487,899:11. Chemical Abstracts 124270551V.

70 SCHULMAN JM, 1996
Medicated gels for healing aphthous ulcers. Patent-US-5,503,822:3. Chemical Abstracts 124298476Y.

71 LERNER FN, 1987
Investigation of effects of proteolytics enzymes, Aloe gel, and iontophoresis on chronic and acute athletic injuries. Chiropractic Sports Med 1(3):106-110.

72 VERMA SBS, SCHULZE HJ, STEIGLEDER GK, 1989
The effect of externally applied remedies containing Aloe vera gel on the proliferation of epidermis. Parfumerie Und Kometik 70(8):452-459.

73 SAYED MD, 1980
Traditional medicine in health care. J Ethnopharmacol 2(1):19-22.

74 DOMÍNGUEZ-SOTO L, 1992
Photodermatitis to Aloe vera. Int J Dermatol 31(5):372.

75 SYED T, AHMAD S, HOLT A, AHMAD S, AHMAD S, AFZAL M, 1996
Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health 1(4):505-509.

76 COUTTS BC, 1979
Stabilized Aloe vera gel. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-79 119,018:6. Chemical Abstracts 9299563V.

77 RAMOS A, EDREIRA AYMEE, VILLESCUSA A, VIZOZO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, 1996
Evaluación genotóxica de un extracto acuoso de Aloe vera L. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(2):18-23.

78 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCÍA A, PILOTO J, PAVÓN V, 2000
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo del extracto fluido de Cassia grandis L y el gel de Aloe vera L. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 5(3):91-96.

79 SETHI N, NATH D, SING R, 1989
Teratological evaluation of some commonly used indigenous antifertility plants in rats. Int J Crude Drug Res 27(2):118-120.

80 GOSWAMI CS, BOKADIA MM, 1979
The effect of extracts of Aloe barbadensis leaves on the fertility of female rats. Indian Drugs 16:124-125.

81 IKENO Y, HUBBARD GB, LEE S, YU BP, HERLIHY JT, 2002
The influence of long-term Aloe vera ingestion on age-related disease in male Fischer 344 rats. Phytother Res 16(8):712-718.

82 YOKEL R, OGZEWALLA C, 1981
Effects of plants ingestion in rats determined by the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Toxicon 19(2):223-232.

83 PRAKASH A, MATHUR R, 1976
Screening of Indian plant for antifertility activity. Indian J Exp Biol 14:623-626.

84 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

85 SHAH AH, QURESHI S, TARIQU M, AGEEL AM, 1989
Toxicity studies on six plants used in the traditional Arab system of medicine. Phytother Res 3(1):25-29.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Nicaragua:

  • 'kukus

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

Dominica:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

Guatemala:

  • cocotero

Honduras:

  • cocotero

Dominican Republic:

  • cocotero
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit oil, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to available information:

Use for asthma, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

There is no information available on this resource for asthmatic crisis.

Use for urinary infections is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, urinary infection or renal stones, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urinary infection symptoms last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use as an orally administered medicine during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

External use for arthritis, flu, burns and nacíos (boils) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)6 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should boils persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research31

For asthma:

Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day.

For urinary ailments:

Drink 250 mL (1 cup) of coconut water 4-6 times a day31.

For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

3 AKER CH, GARMENDIA M, DEVES R, FERNANDEZ P, FRITHZ E, HERNANDEZ M, SIMEON A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Bosawas. Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua UNAN-León, León, Nicaragua.

4 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

7 MOURA FE JA, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975
Unsaponifiable matter of crude and processed coconut oil. J Sci Food Agr 26(4):523-531.

8 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

9 SAITTAGAROON S, KAWAKISHI S, NAMIKI M, 1985
Generation of mannitol from copra meal. J Food Sci 50(3):757-760.

10 TAKEUCHI K, 1961
Amino acids in the endosperm of some Amazonian Palmae. Chiba Daigaku Buurii Gakuba Kiyo Shizen Kagaku 3:321-325.

11 JANSZ BR, JEYARAJ EE, PIERIS N, ABEYRATNE DJ, 1974
Cyanide liberation from linamarin. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 2:57-65.

12 KINDERLERER JL, KELLARD B, 1987
Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut. Chem Ind (London) 16:567-568.

13 MANNAN A, AHMAD K, 1966
Studies on vitamin E in foods of East Pakistan. Pak J Biol Agr Sci 9:13.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

15 CAMBAR P, ALGER J, 1989
Efectos broncopulmonares del aceite de coco en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

16 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del agua de fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

17 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la pulpa tierna del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

18 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005
Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

19 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del aceite del fruto de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 VENKATARAMAN S, RAMANUJAN T, VENKATASUBBU V, 1980
Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shell Cocos nucifera L. J Ethnopharmacol 2(3):291-293.

23 JAIN SK, AGRAWAL SC, 1992
Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 46(1):1-6.

24 CACERES A, GIRON LM, MARTINEZ AM, 1987
Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatments of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol 19(3):233-245.

25 RODRÍGUEZ M, SÁNCHEZ C, 1982
Diuresis del agua de pipa (Cocos nucifera) en ratas. Rev Méd Panamá 7(3):186-19l.

26 KETUSINH O, 1954
Risks associate with intravenous infusion of coconut juice. J Med Ass Thailand 37(5):249-271.

27 MORTON J, 1981
Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. Springfield, USA: III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

28 BOOTH AN, BICKOFF EM, KOHLER GO, 1960
Estrogen-like activity in vegetable oils and mill by-products. Science 131:1807-1808.

29 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso del aceite del fruto de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, de aceite del fruto fresco de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del aceite del fruto puro de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 SALERNO JW, SMITH DE, 1991
The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibiting of human colon cancer growth in vitro. Anticancer Res 11(1):209-215.

34 LOCNISKAR M, BELURY MA, CUMBERLAND AG, PATRICK KE, FISCHER SM, 1991
The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide, comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil. Carcinogenesis 12(6):1023-1028.

35 BERTON TR, FISCHER SM, CONTI CJ, LOCNISKAR MF, 1996
Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil. Nutr Cancer 26(3):353-363.

36 CHINDAVANIG A, 1971
Effect of vegetable oils in plasma cholesterol in man and dog. Master Thesis, Dept. Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

37 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • café

Haiti:

  • kafé
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to available information:

Use for asthma and pneumonia, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma and pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for hepatitis, intestinal worms and vertigo is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice or vertigo last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Use for after anger and poor blood quality is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Not for use if gastritis, peptic ulcer and hyperthyroidism are present.

The roasted and ground seeds of Coffea arabica are widely used for human consumption.

For asthma:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 grams (2 hearts) of fresh leaf 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  Leave to cool down, filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 16 grams of roasted and ground seeds in 1.5 liter (6 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink one and a half cup 3 times a day.

To obtain beneficial effects on pneumonia and even bronchodilator effects, take one and a half cup of the traditional coffee preparation made with roasted and ground seed31.

For after anger, hepatitis, poor blood quality, intestinal parasites and vertigo:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 QUILEZ AM, GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 2009
Uso racional de medicamentos a base de plantas. Guía de interacciones entre fitomedicamentos y fármacos de síntesis. Sevilla, España: 1a Edición Fundación Farmacéutica Avenzoar.

5 MIYAKE T, SHIBAMOTO T, 1993
Quantitative analysis of acetaldehyde in foods and beverages. J Agric Food Chem 41(11):1968-1970.

6 KASAI H, KUMENO K, AMAIZUMI Z, NISHIMURA S, NAGAO M, FUJITA Y, SUGIMURA T, NUKAYA H, KOSUGE T, 1982
Mutagenicity of methylglyoxal in coffee. Jpn J Cancer Res (GANN) 73:681-683.

7 NEURATH GB, DUNGER M, PEIN FG, AMBROSIUS D, SCHREIBER O, 1977
Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(4):275-282.

8 AMORIM HV, CORTEZ JG, 1973
Methods of organic analysis of coffee. II. Comparison of methods of caffeine determination in green coffee. An Esc Super Agr Luiz De Queiroz Univ Sao Paulo 30:281.

9 DEISINGER PJ, HILL TS, ENGLISH JC, 1996
Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone. J Toxicol Environ Health 47(1):31-46.

10 NISHINA A, KAJISHIMA F, MATSUNAGA M, TEZUKA H, INATOMI H, OSAWA T, 1994
Antimicrobial substance, 3',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone, in coffee residue. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2):293-296.

11 AESCHBACH R, KUSY A, MAIER HG, 1982
Diterpenes of coffee. I. Atractyligenin. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 175(5):337-341.

12 GROSS G, JACCAUD E, HUGGETT AC, 1997
Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol 35(6):547-554.

13 DUPLATRE A, TISSE C, ESTIENNE J, 1984
Identification of arabica and robusta [coffee] species by studying the sterol fraction. Ann Falsif Expert Chim Toxicol 77(828):259-270.

14 ANDRADE PB, LEITAO R, SEABRA RM, OLIVEIRA MB, FERREIRA MA, 1997
Development of an HPLC/diode-array detector method for simultaneous determination of seven hydroxy-cinnamic acids in green coffee. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 20(13):2023-2030.

15 SONDHEIMER E, 1958
On the distribution of caffeic acid and the chlorogenic acid isomers in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 74(1):131-138.

16 MEISSNER W, PODKOWINSKA H, WALKOWSKI A, 1974
Determination of chlorogenic acids in green coffee. Zesz Nauk Akad Ekon Poznaniu Ser 1(58):71.

17 OKUDA T, HATANO T, AGATA I, NISHIBE S, KIMURA K, 1986
Tannins in Artemisia montana, A. princeps and related species of plant. Yakugaku Zasshi 106(10):894-899.

18 HAGGAG MY, 1975
A study of the lipid content of Coffea arabica L. seeds. Pharmazie 30(6):409.

19 MAZAAFERA P, 1991
Trigonelline in coffee. Phytochemistry 30(7):2309-2310.

20 TSUJI S, SHIBATA T, OHARA K, OKADA N, ITO Y, 1991
Factors affecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide in coffee. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 32(6):504-512.

21 STOFFELSMA J, SIPMA G, KETTENES DK, PYPKER J, 1968
New volatile components of roasted coffee. J Agric Food Chem 16(6):1000.

22 SPIRO M, 1997
Coffee, tea and chemistry. Chem Rev 6(5):11-15.

23 KOENIG WA, RAHN W, VETTER R, 1980
Identify and quantify emetic active constituents in roast coffee. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 9:145-149.

24 HOFMANN E, SCHLEE D, REINBOTHE H, 1969
On the occurrence and distribution of allantoin in Boraginaceae. Flora Abt A Physiol Biochem (Jena) 159:510-518.

25 MOLINA MR, DE LA FUENTE G, BATTEN MA, BRESSANI R, 1974
Decaffeination. A process to detoxify coffee pulp. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1055.

26 KOLLING-SPEER I, SPEER K, 1997
Diterpenes in coffee leaves. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 17(15):1-154.

27 WALLER GR, JURZYSTE M, KARNS TKB, GENO PW, 1991
Isolation and identification of ursolic acid from Coffea arabica L. (coffee) leaves. Colloq Sci Int Cafe [C.R.] 14:245-247.

28 HIGUCHI K, SUZUKI T, ASHIHARA H, 1995
Pipecolic acid from the developing fruits (pericarp and seeds) of Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 16:389-395.

29 GONZALEZ J, NORIEGA R, SANDOVAL R, 1975
Contribution to the study of flavonoids of coffee tree (Coffea) leaves. Rev Colomb Quim 5:85.

30 CHOU C, WALLER G, 1980
Isolation and identification by mass spectrometry of phytotoxins in Coffea arabica. Bot Bull Acad Sinica (Taiwan) 21(1):25-34.

31 SERAFIN WE, 1996
Drugs used in the treatment of asthma. In: Hardman JG, Gilman AG, Limbird LE Eds. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, International Edition. p672-679.

32 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

33 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, CASTRO E, CASTRO C, MEJIA A, MEDINA F, LAGOS K, AGUILAR J, 1996
Efectos respiratorios y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

34 GARCIA M, Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998
Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, GAMES V, CASTRO E, MEJIA A, CASTRO C, 1996
Efectos de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en la producción de úlceras gástricas por ligadura del píloro en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

36 DAGLIA M, CUZZONI MT, DACARRO C, 1994
Antibacterial activity of coffee. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2270-2272.

37 TODA M, OKUBO S, HIYOSHI R, SHIMAMURA T, 1989
The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 8(4):123-125.

38 KOLEY J, KOLEY BN, MAITRA SR, 1973
Effect of drinking tea, coffee and caffeine on work performance. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 27:96.

39 ESTLE C, 1982
Caffeine psychotrope agents. Berlin, Germany: Springer verlag, 17:369-389.

40 CURATOLO PW, ROBERTSON D, 1983
The health consequences of caffeine. Ann Intern Med 98(5):641-653.

41 GREDEN JF, 1974
Anxiety of caffeinism. A diagnostic dilemma. Am J Psychiatry 131:1089-1092.

42 REY H, 1979
Effet d'un gel de caféine par voie cutanée sur la lipolyse locale. Thèse doctorat Médecine, Bordeaux, France.

43 THIERMAM-DUFFAUD D, 1983
Le café augmente-t-il la cholestérolémie? La Presse Médicale 12(34):2062.

44 DEBAS HT, COHEN MM, HOLUBITSKY IB, HARRISON RC, 1971
Caffeine simulated gastric and pepsine secretion: dose-response studies. Scand J Gastroenterol 6(5):453-457.

45 WRIGHT LF, GIBSON RG, HIRSCHOWITZ RI, 1977
Lack of caffeine stimulation of gastric secretion release in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 154(4):538-539.

46 MCARTHUR K, HOGAN D, ISENBERG JI, 1982
Relative stimulatory effects of commonly ingested beverages on gastric secretion in human. Gastroenterology 83(1/2):199-203.

47 GARCIA M, Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998
Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

48 STADLER RH, TURESKY RJ, MULLER O, MARKOVIC J, LEONG-MORGENTHALER PM, 1994
The inhibitory effects of coffee on radical-mediated oxidation and mutagenicity. Mutat Res 308(2):177-190.

49 STICH HF, ROSIN MP, BRYSON L, 1982
Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea. Mutat Res 95(2-3):119-128.

50 OBANA H, NAKAMURA SI, TANAKA RI, 1986
Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens. Mutat Res 175(2):47-50.

51 FUJITA FY, WAKABAYASHI K, NAGAO M, SUGIMURA T, 1985
Characteristics of major mutagenicity of instant coffee. Mutat Res 142(4):145-148.

52 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977
A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. I. Body weight, food comsumption, hematological parameters and plasma chemistry. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(1):7-16.

53 NOLEN GA, 1981
The effect of brewed and instant coffee on reproduction and teratogenesis in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 58(2):171-183.

54 ABRAHAM SK, 1995
Inhibitory effects of coffee on transplacental genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res 347(1):45-52.

55 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977
A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. II. Incidence and types of neoplasms. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(4):289-296.

56 MURPHY SJ, BENJAMIN CP, 1981
The effects of coffee on mouse development. Microbiol Lett 17:91-100.

57 NAGASAWA H, YASUDA M, SAKAMOTO S, INATOMI H, 1995
Protection by coffee cherry against spontaneous mammary tumour development in mice. Anticancer Res 15(1):141-146.

58 HASEGAWA R, ITO N, 1992
Liver medium-term bioassay in rats for screening of carcinogens and modifying factors in hepatocarcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol 30(11):979-992.

59 KLEEMOLA P, JOUSILAHTI P, PIETINEN P, VARTIAINEN E, TUOMILEHTO J, 2000
Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease and death. Arch Intern Med 160(22):3393-3400.

60 WILLETT WC, STAMPFER MJ, MANSON JE, COLDITZ GA, ROSNER BA, SPEIZER RE, HENNEKENS CH, 1996
Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. J Amer Med Assoc 275(6):458-462.

61 TAVANI A, PREGNOLATO A, LA VECCHIA C, NEGRI E, TALAMINI R, FRANCESCHI S, 1997
Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int J Cancer 73(2):193-197.

62 BARON JA, GREENBERG ER, HAILE R, MANDEL J, SANDLER RS, MOTT L, 1997
Coffee and tea and the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(1):7-10.

63 LUBIN F, RON E, WAX Y, MODAN B, 1985
Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 74(3):569-573.

64 WILLIAMS MA, MONSON RR, GOLDMAN MB, MITTENDORF R, 1990
Coffee and delayed conception. Lancet 335(8705):1603.

65 PIRACCINI BM, BARDAZZI F, VINCENZI C, TARDIO MP, 1990
Occupational contact dermatitis due to coffee. Contact Dermatitis 23(2):114.

66 NISHIBE Y, TOMONO N, HIRASAWA H, OKADA T, 1996
Skin-lightening cosmetics containing extracts of Coffea arabica seeds. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 92,057.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • datira
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

smoke of dried flower and leaf, inhaled1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 ALAMI RR, CHRISTENSEN BV, BEAL JL, 1955
A note on the alkaloidal ratios in certain species of Datura. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 44:710-711.

3 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

4 SONANINI D, RZADKOWSKA-BODALSKA H, STEINEGGER E, 1970
Solanaceae flavones. 7. Flavonol glycosides from folium stramonii. Pharm Acta Helv 45(2):153-156.

5 TURSUNOVA R, MASLENNIKOVA V, ABUBAKIROV N, 1976
Withanolides of Datura stramonium. Khim Prir Soedin 12:670A.

6 PATE D, AVERETT J, 1986
Flavonoids of datura. Biochem Syst Eco 14(6):647-649.

7 SCHMITZ M, AMIRI I, REINBOLT J, BOULANGER Y, UNGERER A, 1988
Isolation and structure of a pseudopeptide gamma-L-glutamyl-L-aspartic acid from Datura stramonium that impairs learning retention in mice. Biochimie 70(9):1179-1184.

8 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

9 VINCENT D, LESOBRE R, KAUFMAN E, 1965
An antiasthmatic smoke as an anticholinergic and antihistamic effect. Therapie 20(4):931-952.

10 ITOKAWA H, MIHASHI S, WATANABE K, NATSUMOTO H, HAMANAKA T, 1983
Studies on the constituents of crude drugs having inhibitory activity against contraction of the ileum caused by histamine or barium chloride (1) screening test for the activity of commercially available crude drugs and the related plant materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(3):223-228.

11 FORNO JR FJ, TERRY RA 1998
Accidental ingestion of jimsonweed by an adolescent. J Am Osteopath Assoc 98(9):502-565.

12 UNGERER A, SCHMITZ M, MELAN C, BOULANGER Y, REINBOLT J, AMIRI I, BARRY J, 1988
Gamma-L-glutamyl-L-aspartate induces specific deficits in long term memory and inhibits [3H]glutamate binding. Brain Res 446(2):205-211.

13 Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica. 9a ed. México: McGraw-Hill Interamericana: pp158-163.

14 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

15 KEELER RF, 1981
Absence of arthrogryposis in newborn Hampshire pigs from sows ingesting toxic levels of jimsonweed during gestation. Vet Hum Toxicol 23(6):413-415.

16 GOTO M, NOGUCHI T, WATANABE T, ISHIKAWA I, KOMATSU M, ARAMAKI Y, 1957
Uterus-contracting ingredients in plants. Takeda Kenkyusho Nempo 16:21.

17 HARVEY RB, LARSO AH, LANDON RH, BOYD WL, ERICKSON LC, 1945
Weeds poisonous to livestock. Bull Minnesota Agr Exp Sta 388:1.

18 FERNANDO R, FERNANDO DN, 1990
Poisoning with plants and mushrooms in Sri Lanka: a retrospective hospital based study. Vet Hum Toxicol 32(6):579-581.

19 BALLANTYNE A, LIPPIETT P, PARK J, 1976
Herbal cigarettes for kicks. Brit Med J 2:1539.

20 PEREIRA CAL, NISHIOKA SDA, 1994
Poisoning by the use of Datura leaves in a homemade toothpaste. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 32(3):329-331.

21 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana. New Orleans, USA: Dept. Conservation, Book.

22 HARRISON EA, MORGAN DH, 1976
Abuse of herbal cigarettes containing stramonium. Brit Med J 2:1195.

23 ODERDA GM, 1975
Jimson weed. J Am Med Assoc 232:597.

24 SCHMIDT A, 1943
Poisoning with stinging nettle tea. Pharm Zentralhalle Dtschl 84:238-239.

25 LAMENS D, DE HERT S, VERMEYEN K, 1994
Tea of thornapple leaves, a rare cause of atropine intoxication. Acta Anaesth Belg 45(2):55-57.

26 SIEGEL RK, 1976
Herbal intoxication. Psychoactive effects from herbal cigarettes, tea, and capsules. J Am Med Assoc 236(5):473-476.

27 GUHAROY SR, BARAJAS M, 1991
Atropine intoxication from the ingestion and smoking of jimson weed (Datura stramonium). Vet Hum Toxicol 33(6):588-589.

28 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

29 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe (Thèse Pharmacie). Faculté de Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

30 HARDIN J, ARENA J, 1974
Human poisoning from native and cultivated plants. 2nd ed. Durham, USA: Duke University Press.

31 TAH S, MAHDI A, 1984
Datura intoxication in Riyadh. Soc Trop Med Hyg 78(1):134-135.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • aguacate

Mexico:

  • aguacate

Guatemala:

  • aguacate

Barbados:

  • pear tree

Martinique:

  • zaboka
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for amenorrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma, bronchitis or cough last more than 5 days, or should urinary infection persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the risks of documented interactions with warfarin and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by persons taking these medicines5.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

 

Not for use during pregnancy because it may have abortifacient effect.

The fruit of Persea americana is widely used for human consumption.

For amenorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1/2-1 cup 3-4 times a day26.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

5 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

6 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Persea americana. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Feb. 26, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

7 BERGH BO, SCORA RW, STOREY WB, 1973
Comparison of leaf terpenes in Persea subgenus persea. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 134(2)130-134.

8 KING JR, KNIGHT RJ, 1992
Volatile components of the leaves of various avocado cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1182-1185.

9 DE ALMEIDA AP, MIRANDA MMFS, SIMONI IC, WIGG MD, LAGROTA MHC, COSTA SS, 1998
Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion. Phytother Res 12(8):562-567.

10 MERIÇLI F, MERIÇLI AH, YILMAZ F, YÜNCÜLER G, YÜNCÜLER O, 1992
Flavonoids of avocado (Persea americana) leaves. Acta Pharm Turc 34(2):61-63.

11 BATE-SMITH EC, 1975
Phytochemistry of proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 14(4):1107-1113.

12 MURAKOSHI S, ISOGAI A, CHANG CF, KAMIKADO T, SAKURAI A, TAMURA S, 1976
The effects of two components from avocado leaves (Persea americana) and related compounds on the growth of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkaishi 20:87-91.

13 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas TRAMIL en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de ciencias químicas y farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 HERRERA J, 1986
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

15 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1999
Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

17 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 ADEYEMI OO, OKPO SO, OGUNTI OO, 2002
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill Lauraceae. Fitoterapia 73(5):375-380.

19 HERRERA J, 1988
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca machacada de Persea americana Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 CRAIGMILL AL, SEAWRIGHT AA, MATTILA T, FROST AJ, 1989
Pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (Persea americana). Aust Vet J 66(7):206-211.

23 GRANT R, BASSON PA, BOOKER HH, HOFHERR JB, ANTHONISSEN M, 1991
Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leaves. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62(1):21-22.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Cuba:

  • orégano francés

Mexico:

  • orégano grueso

Venezuela:

  • orégano orejón
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf (half-roasted), infusion, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for asthma is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The leaves ofPlectranthus amboinicus are widely used as a spice.

For asthma:

Prepare an infusion adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to 35 grams of half-roasted leaves (5-7 leaves).  Cover pot, let infusion settle for 5-10 minutes.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup as required by symptomatic indication, up to 3 times per day14.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

3 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 HAQUE I, 1988
Analysis of volatile constituents of Pakistani Coleus aromaticus plant oil by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Chem Soc Pak 10(3):369-371.

5 TIMOR CE, MANZINI ME, FERNANDEZ A, GONZALEZ ML, 1992
Physicochemical assessment of the essential oil from the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. growing in Cuba. Rev Cubana Farm 25(1):63-68.

6 BRIESKORN CH, RIEDEL W, 1977
Flavonoids from Coleus amboinicus. Planta Med 31(4):308.

7 BRIESKORN CH, RIEDEL W, 1977
Triterpene acids from Coleus amboinicus. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 310(11):910-916.

8 ATAL CK, SRIVASTAVA JB, WALI BK, CHAKRAVARTY RB, DHAWAN BN, ROSTOGI RP, 1978
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part. VIII. Indian J Exp Biol 16(3):330-349.

9 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

10 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, BOULOGNE I, 2013
A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies. Informe TRAMIL. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13:126.

11 LLANIO M, PEREZ-SAAD H, FERNANDEZ MD, GARRIGA E, MENENDEZ R, BUZNEGO MT, 1999
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés): efecto antimuscarínico y potenciación de la adrenalina. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(4):29-32.

12 MENENDEZ RA, PAVON V, 1999
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Rev Cubana planta Med 3(3):110-115.

13 BARZAGA P, TILLAN J, MARRERO G, CARRILLO C, BELLMA A, MONTERO C, 2009
Actividad expectorante de formulaciones a partir de Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Rev Cubana de Plant Med 14(2):revista electrónica.

14 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, fallas LV, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Plectrantus amboinicus . Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

15 LOPEZ M, GARCIA A, BACALLAO Y, DUMENICO A, MARTINEZ I, MORON F, 2013
Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de hoja fresca de Plectranthus amboinicus Lour. frita en aceite al 50% y 30%. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

16 TILLAN J, BUENO V, MENENEZ R, CARRILLO C, ORTIZ M, 2008
Toxicología subcrónica del extracto acuoso de Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Revi Cubana Plant Med 13(1):revista electrónica.

17 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

18 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, EDREIRA A, BETANCOURT J, DECALO M, 1999
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Estudio toxicogenético de un extracto fluido y del aceite esencial. Rev Cubana Plant Med 3(2):68-73.

19 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p102.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, rubbed on chest1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, syrup, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, orally4,6

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • ginger

Dominica:

  • ginger

Puerto Rico:

  • ginger
  • jengibre

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • ginger

Saint Lucia:

  • ginger

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • ginger

Guatemala:

  • jengibre

Honduras:

  • jengibre

Venezuela:

  • jengibre

Costa Rica:

  • jengibre
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 DELENS M, 1992
Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 O'REILLY A, WILSON V, PHILLIP M, JOSEPH O, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry and Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua and Barbuda.

7 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

9 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

11 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

12 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

13 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

14 QUILEZ AM, GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 2009
Uso racional de medicamentos a base de plantas. Guía de interacciones entre fitomedicamentos y fármacos de síntesis. Sevilla, España: 1a Edición Fundación Farmacéutica Avenzoar.

15 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Zingiber officinalis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 30, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

16 WHO, 1999
Rhizoma zingiberis. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume I. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. p284.

17 TANABE M, YASUDA M, ADACHI Y, KANOY, 1991
Capillary GC-MS analysis of volatile components in Japanese gingers. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45(4):321-326.

18 NISHIMURA O, 1995
Identification of the characteristic odorants in fresh rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber oficinale Roscoe) using aroma extract dilution analysis and modified multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 43(11):2941-2945.

19 SAKAMURA F, OGIHARA K, SUGA T, TANIGUCHI K, TANAKA R, 1986
Volatile constituents of Zingiber officinale rhizomes produced by in vitro shoot tip culture. Phytochemistry 25(6):1333-1335.

20 WU P, KUO MC, HO CT, 1990
Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Agric Food Chem 38(7):1553-1555.

21 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963
Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics and their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

22 VAN BEEK TA, LELYVELD GP, 1991
Isolation and identification of the five major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of ginger. Phytochem Anal 2(1):26-34.

23 SHIBA M, MYATA A, OKADA M, WATANABE K, 1986
Antiulcer furanogermenone extraction from ginger. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-61 227,523.

24 YOSHIKAWA M, HATAKEYAMA S, CHATANI N, NISHINO Y, YAMAHARA J, 1993
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive principles in Zingiberis Rhizoma by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. On the evaluation of Zingiberis Rhizoma and chemical change of constituents during Zingiberis Rhizoma processing. Yakugaku Zasshi 113(4):307-315.

25 TANABE M, CHEN YD, SAITO KI, KANO Y, 1993
Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Chem Pharm Bull 41(4):710-713.

26 KANO Y, TANABE M, YASUDA M, 1990
On the evaluation of the preparation of Chinese medicinal prescriptions (V) diterpenes from Japanese ginger "kintoki". Shoyakugaku Zasshi 44(1):55-57.

27 KAWAKISHI S, MORIMITSU Y, OSAWA T, 1994
Chemistry of ginger components and inhibitory factors of the arachidonic acid cascade. Asc Symp Ser 547:244-250.

28 KIKUZAKI H, NAKATANI N, 1993
Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci 58(6):1407-1410.

29 KIUCHI F, IWAKAMI S, SHIBUYA M, HANAOKA F, SANKAWA U, 1992
Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull 40(2):387-391.

30 HARVEY DJ, 1981
Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of ginger constituents. identification of gingerdiones and new hexahydrocurcumin analogues. J Chromatogr 211(1):75-84.

31 YUSUFOGLU H, ALQASOUMI SI, 2008
High performance thin layer chromatographic analysis of 10-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. FABAD J Pharm Sci 33:199–204.

32 MASADA Y, INOUE T, HASHIMOTO K, FUJIOKA M, UCHINO C, 1974
Studies on the constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by GC-MS. Yakugaku Zasshi 94(6):735-738.

33 ANON, 1982
Analgesic formulations containing shogaol and gingerol. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-82 46,914.

34 CHEN CC, ROSEN RT, HO CT, 1986
Chromatographic analyses of isomeric shogaol compounds derived from isolated gingerol compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Chromatogr 360:175-184.

35 SCHWERTNER HA, RIOS DC, 2007
High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in ginger-containing dietary supplements, spices, teas, and beverages. J of Chromatography B856(1-2):41-47.

36 HARTMAN M, 1971
Chemical composition of certain products from ginger (Zingiber officinale). Zivocisna Vyroba 16(10/11):805-812.

37 SCHULTZ JM, HERRMANN K, 1980
Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

38 FU HY, HUANG TC, HO CT, DAUN H, 1993
Characterization of the major anthocyanin in acidified green ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Zhongguo Nongye Huaxue Huizhi 31(5):587-595.

39 NELSON EK, 1920
Constitution of capsaicin, the pungent principle of ginger. II. J Amer Chem Soc 42:597-599.

40 LIN ZK, HUA YF, 1987
Chemical constituents of the essential oil from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. of Sichuan. You-Ji Hua Hsueh 6:444-448.

41 ERLER J, VOSTROWSKY O, STROBEL H, KNOBLOCH K, 1988
Essential oils from ginger (Zingiber officinalis Roscoe). Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 186(3):231-234.

42 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p172.

43 KIUCHI F, SHIBUYA M, KINOSHITA T, SANKAWA U, 1983
Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by the constituents of medicinal plants. Chem Pharm Bull 31(10):3391-3396.

44 SRIVASTAVA KC, 1984
Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibited platelet aggregation and altered arachidonic acid metabolism. Biomed Biochim Acta 43(8/9):5335-5346.

45 ADACHI I, YASUTA A, MATSUBARA T, UENO M, TERASAWA K, HORIKOSHI I, 1984
Macrophage procoagulant activity. Effects of hot water extracts of several Kanpo-prescriptions on macrophage procoagulant activity, I. Yakugaku Zasshi 104(9):959-965.

46 PODLOGAR JA, VERSPOHL EJ, 2012
Antiinflammatory effects of ginger and some of its components in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Phytother Res 26(3):333-336.

47 KUO PL, HSU YL, HUANG MS, TSAI MJ, KO YC, 2011
Ginger suppresses phthalate ester-induced airway remodeling. J Agric Food Chem 59(7):3429-3438.

48 MASCOLO N, JAIN R, JAIN SC, CAPASSO F, 1989
Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol 27(1/2):129-140.

49 WOO W, LEE E, HAN B, 1979
Biological evaluation of Korean medicinal plants. III. Arch Pharm Res 2(2):127-188.

50 MAY G, WILLUHN G, 1978
Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures. Arzneim-Forsch 28(1):1-7.

51 ADEWUNMI CO, 1984
Natural products as agents of schistosomiasis control in Nigeria: A review of progress. Int J Crude Drug Res 22(4):161-166.

52 FEROZ H, KHARE AK, SRIVASTAVA MC, 1982
Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants. J Sci Res Pl Med 3:6-12.

53 PANTHONG A, SIVAMOGSTHAM P, 1974
Pharmacological study of the action of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the gastrointestinal tract. Chien Mai Med Bull 13(1):41-53.

54 KASAHARA Y, SAITO E, HIKINO H, 1983
Pharmacological actions of Pinellia tubers and Zingiber rhizomes. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(1):73-83.

55 SAKAI K, MIYAZAKI Y, YAMANE T, SAITOH Y, IKAWA C, NISHIHATA T, 1989
Effect of extracts of Zingiberaceae herbs on gastric secretion in rabbits. Chem Pharm Bull 37(1):215-217.

56 MINAIYAN M, GHANNADI A, KARIZMADEH A, 2006
Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on cystemine induced duodenal ulcer in rats. DARU J of Pharmaceutical Sciences 14(2):97-101.

57 MOWREY DB, CLAYSON DE, 1982
Motion sickness, ginger and psychophysics. Lancet 82(1):655-657.

58 GRONTVED A, BRASK T, KAMBSKARD J, HENTZER E, 1988
Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockholm) 105(1/2):45-49.

59 HOLTMANN S, CLARKE AH, SCHERER H, HOHN M, 1989
The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockholm) 108(3/4):168-174.

60 WOOD CD, MANNO JE, WOOD MJ, MANNO BR, MIMS ME, 1988
Comparison of efficacy of Ginger with various antimotion sickness drug. Clin Res Pract Drug Reg Affairs 6(2):129-136.

61 FISCHER-RASMUSSEN W, KJAER SK, DAHL C, ASPING U, 1991
Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstetr Gynecol Reprod Biol 38(1):19-24.

62 PILLAI AK, SHARMA KK, GUPTA YK, BAKHSHI S, 2011
Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 56(2):234-238.

63 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Zingiber officinalis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 30, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

64 BETANCOURT J, MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de rhizome de Zingiber officinalis Roscoe. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

65 BETANCOURT J, MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de rhizome de Zingiber officinalis Roscoe. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

66 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

67 SHALABY MA, HAMOWIEH AR, 2010
Safety and efficacy of Zingiber ofcinale roots on fertility of male diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48(10):2920–2924.

68 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

69 EMIG H, 1931
The pharmacological action of ginger. J Amer Pharm Ass 20:114-116.

70 ANON (Select Committee on GRAS Substances), 1976
GRAS status of foods and food additives. Washington DC, USA: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration 41, 38644.

71 KUMAZAWA Y, TAKIMOTO H, MIURA SI, NISHIMURA C, YAMADA A, KAWAKITA T, NOMOTO K, 1988
Activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by intraperitoneal administration of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Japanese name: Shosaiko-To). Int J Inmunopharmacol 10(4):395-403.